Insulin Resistance and Truncal Obesity as Important Determinants of the Greater Incidence of Diabetes in Indian Asians and African Caribbeans Compared With Europeans
The Southall and Brent Revisited (SABRE) cohort
- Therese Tillin, MSC, MB, BS1⇓,
- Alun D. Hughes, PHD, MB, BS, BSC1,
- Ian F. Godsland, PHD, BA2,
- Peter Whincup, FFPHM, FRCP, PHD, MSC, MB, BCHIR, BA3,
- Nita G. Forouhi, MFPH, PHD, MSC, MRCP, MB, BS, BMEDSCI4,
- Paul Welsh, PHD, BSC5,
- Naveed Sattar, FRCP, FRCPATH, PHD, MB, CHB5,
- Paul M. McKeigue, PHD, MFCM, MSC, MB, BCHIR, BA6 and
- Nish Chaturvedi, MD, MSC, MFPHM, MRCP, MB, BS1
- 1International Centre for Circulatory Health, National Heart and Lung Institute, Imperial College London, London, U.K.
- 2Endocrinology and Medicine, Department of Medicine, Imperial College London, London, U.K.
- 3Division of Population Health Sciences and Education, St. George’s University of London, London, U.K.
- 4MRC Epidemiology Unit, Institute of Metabolic Science, Addenbrooke’s Hospital, Cambridge, U.K.
- 5Institute of Cardiovascular and Medical Sciences, University of Glasgow School of Medicine, Glasgow, U.K.
- 6Centre for Population Health Sciences, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh, U.K.
- Corresponding author: Therese Tillin,
OBJECTIVE To determine the extent of, and reasons for, ethnic differences in type 2 diabetes incidence in the U.K.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Population-based triethnic cohort. Participants were without diabetes, aged 40–69 at baseline (1989–1991), and followed-up for 20 years. Baseline measurements included fasting and postglucose bloods, anthropometry, and lifestyle questionnaire. Incident diabetes was identified from medical records and participant recall. Ethnic differences in diabetes incidence were examined using competing risks regression.
RESULTS Incident diabetes was identified in 196 of 1,356 Europeans (14%), 282 of 842 Indian Asians (33%), and 100 of 335 African Caribbeans (30%). All Indian Asians and African Caribbeans were first-generation migrants. Compared with Europeans, age-adjusted subhazard ratios (SHRs [95% CI]) for men and women, respectively, were 2.88 (95%, 2.36–3.53; P < 0.001) and 1.91 (1.18–3.10; P = 0.008) in Indian Asians, and 2.23 (1.64–3.03; P < 0.001) and 2.51 (1.63–3.87; P < 0.001) in African Caribbeans. Differences in baseline insulin resistance and truncal obesity largely attenuated the ethnic minority excess in women (adjusted SHRs: Indian Asians 0.77 [0.49–1.42]; P = 0.3; African Caribbeans 1.48 [0.89–2.45]; P = 0.13), but not in men (adjusted SHRs: Indian Asians 1.98 [1.52–2.58]; P < 0.001 and African Caribbeans, 2.05 [1.46–2.89; P < 0.001]).
CONCLUSIONS Insulin resistance and truncal obesity account for the twofold excess incidence of diabetes in Indian Asian and African Caribbean women, but not men. Explanations for the excess diabetes risk in ethnic minority men remains unclear. Further study requires more precise measures of conventional risk factors and identification of novel risk factors.
- Received March 21, 2012.
- Accepted August 3, 2012.
- © 2012 by the American Diabetes Association.
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