Diabetes and Risk of Fracture-Related Hospitalization: The Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities Study
- Andrea L. C. Schneider, PHD1,2,
- Emma K. Williams, MHS1,2,
- Frederick L. Brancati, MD, MHS1,2,3,
- Saul Blecker, MD, MHS4,
- Josef Coresh, MD, PHD1,2 and
- Elizabeth Selvin, PHD, MPH1,2⇓
- 1Department of Epidemiology, Bloomberg School of Public Health, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
- 2Welch Center for Prevention, Epidemiology, and Clinical Research, The Johns Hopkins University, Baltimore, Maryland
- 3Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, The Johns Hopkins University School of Medicine, Baltimore, Maryland
- 4Department of Medicine, Division of General Internal Medicine, New York University School of Medicine, New York, New York
- Corresponding author: Elizabeth Selvin,
A.L.C. and E.K.W. contributed equally to this study.
OBJECTIVE To examine the association between diabetes, glycemic control, and risk of fracture-related hospitalization in the Atherosclerosis Risk in Communities (ARIC) Study.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS Fracture-related hospitalization was defined using International Classification of Diseases, 9th revision, codes (733.1–733.19, 733.93–733.98, or 800–829). We calculated the incidence rate of fracture-related hospitalization by age and used Cox proportional hazards models to investigate the association of diabetes with risk of fracture after adjustment for demographic, lifestyle, and behavioral risk factors.
RESULTS There were 1,078 incident fracture-related hospitalizations among 15,140 participants during a median of 20 years of follow-up. The overall incidence rate was 4.0 per 1,000 person-years (95% confidence interval [CI], 3.8–4.3). Diagnosed diabetes was significantly and independently associated with an increased risk of fracture (adjusted hazard ratio [HR], 1.74; 95% CI, 1.42–2.14). There also was a significantly increased risk of fracture among persons with diagnosed diabetes who were treated with insulin (HR, 1.87; 95% CI, 1.15–3.05) and among persons with diagnosed diabetes with HbA1c ≥8% (1.63; 1.09–2.44) compared with those with HbA1c <8%. Undiagnosed diabetes was not significantly associated with risk of fracture (HR, 1.12; 95% CI, 0.82–1.53).
CONCLUSIONS This study supports recommendations from the American Diabetes Association for assessment of fracture risk and implementation of prevention strategies in persons with type 2 diabetes, particularly those persons with poor glucose control.
- Received June 18, 2012.
- Accepted October 14, 2012.
- © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.
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