Visit-to-Visit Blood Pressure Variability Is a Novel Risk Factor for the Development and Progression of Diabetic Nephropathy in Patients With Type 2 Diabetes
- Hiroshi Okada, MD,
- Michiaki Fukui, MD, PHD⇓,
- Muhei Tanaka, MD, PHD,
- Shinobu Matsumoto, MD,
- Yusuke Mineoka, MD,
- Naoko Nakanishi, MD,
- Mai Asano, MD, PHD,
- Masahiro Yamazaki, MD, PHD,
- Goji Hasegawa, MD, PHD and
- Naoto Nakamura, MD, PHD
- Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Kyoto Prefectural University of Medicine, Graduate School of Medical Science, Kyoto, Japan
- Corresponding author: Michiaki Fukui,
OBJECTIVE Recent study has suggested that not only the presence of hypertension but also the variability in systolic blood pressure (SBP) are risk factors for vascular disease and organ damage. The aim of this study was to investigate the relationship between visit-to-visit variability in SBP and change in urinary albumin excretion (UAE) or development of albuminuria in patients with type 2 diabetes.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We measured SBP in 354 consecutive patients at every visit during 1 year and calculated the coefficient of variation of SBP. We performed a follow-up study to assess change in UAE or development of albuminuria, the mean interval of which was 3.76 ± 0.71 years. Then, we evaluated relationships of variability of SBP to diabetic nephropathy using multiple regression analysis and multiple Cox regression model.
RESULTS Multiple regression analysis demonstrated that coefficient of variation of SBP was independently associated with change in UAE (β = 0.1758; P = 0.0108). Adjusted Cox regression analyses demonstrated that coefficient of variation of SBP was associated with an increased hazard of development of albuminuria; hazard ratio was 1.143 (95% confidence interval 1.008–1.302).
CONCLUSIONS Visit-to-visit variability in SBP could be a novel risk factor for the development and progression of diabetic nephropathy in patients with type 2 diabetes.
- Received October 11, 2012.
- Accepted December 22, 2012.
- © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.
Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered. See http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/3.0/ for details.