Effect of Insulin Glargine and n-3FA on Carotid Intima-Media Thickness in People With Dysglycemia at High Risk for Cardiovascular Events
The Glucose Reduction and Atherosclerosis Continuing Evaluation Study (ORIGIN-GRACE)
- Eva M. Lonn, MD1,2⇑,
- Jackie Bosch, MSC2,
- Rafael Diaz, MD3,
- Patricio Lopez-Jaramillo, MD4,
- Ambady Ramachandran, MD5,
- Nicolae Hâncu, MD, PHD6,
- Markolf Hanefeld, MD7,
- Henry Krum, MBBS, PHD8,
- Lars Ryden, MD, PHD9,
- Sandra Smith, RDMS2,
- Matthew J. McQueen, MD, PHD2,
- Leanne Dyal, MSC2,
- Salim Yusuf, MD, DPHIL1,2,
- Hertzel C. Gerstein, MD1,2,
- for the GRACE and ORIGIN Investigators*
- 1Department of Medicine, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
- 2Population Health Research Institute, McMaster University, Hamilton, Ontario, Canada
- 3Estudios Clinicos Latino America, Rosario, Argentina
- 4Research Department, Faculty of Medicine, Universidad de Santander and Research Department, Fundación Oftalmológica de Santander-Clínica Carlos Ardila Lulle, Floridablanca Bucaramanga, Santander, Colombia
- 5India Diabetes Research Foundation, Chennai, India
- 6Iuliu Hatieganu University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Clinical Center of Diabetes, Nutrition, and Metabolic Diseases, Cluj-Napoca, Romania
- 7Center for Clinical Studies, Technical University Dresden, Dresden, Germany
- 8Centre of Cardiovascular Research and Education in Therapeutics, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia
- 9Department of Medicine, Karolinska Institute, Stockholm, Sweden
- Corresponding author: Eva Lonn, .
OBJECTIVES To evaluate the effects of insulin glargine and n-3 polyunsaturated fatty acid (n-3FA) supplements on carotid intima-media thickness (CIMT).
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We enrolled 1,184 people with cardiovascular (CV) disease and/or CV risk factors plus impaired fasting glucose, impaired glucose tolerance, or early type 2 diabetes in a randomized multicenter 2 × 2 factorial design trial. Participants received open-label insulin glargine (targeting fasting glucose levels ≤5.3 mmol/L [95 mg/dL]) or standard glycemic care and double-blind therapy with a 1-g capsule of n-3FA or placebo. The primary trial outcome was the annualized rate of change in maximum CIMT for the common carotid, bifurcation, and internal carotid artery segments. Secondary outcomes were the annualized rates of change in maximum CIMT for the common carotid and the common carotid plus bifurcation, respectively. Baseline followed by annual ultrasounds were obtained during a median follow-up of 4.9 years.
RESULTS Compared with standard care, insulin glargine reduced the primary CIMT outcome, but the difference was not statistically significant (difference = 0.0030 ± 0.0021 mm/year; P = 0.145) and significantly reduced the secondary CIMT outcomes (differences of 0.0033 ± 0.0017 mm/year [P = 0.049] and 0.0045 ± 0.0021 mm/year [P = 0.032], respectively). There were no differences in the primary and secondary outcomes between the n-3FA supplement and placebo groups.
CONCLUSIONS In people with CV disease and/or CV risk factors and dysglycemia, insulin glargine used to target normoglycemia modestly reduced CIMT progression, whereas daily supplementation with n-3FA had no effect on CIMT progression.
↵* A complete list of the investigators of the ORIGIN-GRACE and ORIGIN trials can be found in the Supplementary Data online and in refs. 23 and 24.
- Received October 18, 2012.
- Accepted February 11, 2013.
- © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.
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