Consumption of a Diet Low in Advanced Glycation Endproducts for 4 weeks Improves Insulin Sensitivity in Overweight Women
- Alicja B. Mark, PhD*,1,
- Malene W. Poulsen, MSc*,1,
- Stine Andersen, MSc1,
- Jeanette M. Andersen, MSc1,2,
- Monika J. Bak, MSc1,3,
- Christian Ritz, PhD1,
- Jens J. Holst, MD, PhD4,
- John Nielsen, PhD2,
- Barbora de Courten, MD, PhD3,5,6,
- Lars O. Dragsted, PhD1 and
- Susanne Bügel, PhD.1⇑
- 1Department of Nutrition, Exercise and Sports, Faculty of Science, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
- 2Department of Drug Design and Pharmacology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
- 3Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
- 4NNF Center for Basic Metabolic Research, Department of Biomedical Sciences, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Denmark.
- 5Baker IDI Heart and Diabetes Institute, Melbourne, Australia.
- 6Steno Diabetes Center, Copenhagen, Denmark.
- Corresponding author: Susanne Bügel, E-mail: .
↵* Authorship equally shared.
Objective High heat cooking of food induces formation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGEs), which are thought to impair glucose metabolism in type 2 diabetic patients. High intake of fructose might additionally affect endogenous formation of AGEs. This parallel intervention study investigated whether addition of fructose or cooking methods influencing the AGE content of food affect insulin sensitivity in overweight individuals.
Research design and methods Seventy-four overweight women were randomized to follow either a high- or low-AGE diet for 4 weeks, together with either fructose or glucose drinks. Glucose and insulin concentrations – fasting and 2-h after an oral glucose tolerance test – were measured before and after the intervention. Homeostasis model assessment of insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) and insulin sensitivity index (ISI0,120) were calculated. Dietary and urinary AGE concentrations were measured (LC-MS/MS) to estimate AGE intake and excretion.
Results When adjusted for changes in anthropometric measures during the intervention the low-AGE diet decreased urinary AGEs, fasting insulin, and HOMA-IR, compared with the high-AGE diet. Addition of fructose did not affect any outcomes.
Conclusions Diets with high AGE content may increase development of insulin resistance. AGEs can be reduced by modulation of cooking methods but is unaffected by moderate fructose intake.
- Received April 10, 2013.
- Accepted August 13, 2013.
- © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association.
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