OBJECTIVE To assess the risk of psychiatric disorders and suicide attempts in children with type 1 diabetes and their healthy siblings.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We performed a population-based case-cohort study of individuals born in Sweden between 1973 and 2009. Children with type 1 diabetes (n = 17,122) and their healthy siblings (n = 18,847) were identified and followed until their 18th birthday. Their risk of psychiatric disorders was compared with that of matched control subjects.
RESULTS The risk of psychiatric morbidity in children with type 1 diabetes compared with the general population was tripled within 6 months after the onset of diabetes (hazard ratio [HR] 3.0 [95% CI 2.7–3.4]) and doubled within the total observation period (HR 2.1 [95% CI 2.0–2.2]). An increased risk was noted in suicide attempts (HR 1.7 [95% CI 1.4–2.0]) and in most categories of psychiatric disorders. The risk of psychiatric disorders in probands declined from HR 2.7 (95% CI 2.2–3.3) for those in the cohort born 1973–1986 to 1.9 (95% CI 1.8–2.0) in those born 1997–2009. The risk for any psychiatric disorders among siblings of patients with type 1 diabetes was estimated to be HR 1.1 (95% CI 1.0–1.1), and there was no increased risk in any of the specific category of disorders.
CONCLUSIONS Children with type 1 diabetes are at high risk of psychiatric disorders, which seems to be a consequence of the disease rather than due to a common familial etiology. The results support recommendations on comprehensive mental health surveillance in children with type 1 diabetes, especially in recently diagnosed children.
- Received January 28, 2014.
- Accepted August 13, 2014.
- © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.