OBJECTIVE Skipping breakfast has been consistently associated with high HbA1c and postprandial hyperglycemia (PPHG) in patients with type 2 diabetes. Our aim was to explore the effect of skipping breakfast on glycemia after a subsequent isocaloric (700 kcal) lunch and dinner.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS In a crossover design, 22 patients with diabetes with a mean diabetes duration of 8.4 ± 0.7 years, aged 56.9 ± 1.0 years, BMI 28.2 ± 0.6 kg/m2, and HbA1c 7.7 ± 0.1% (61 ± 0.8 mmol/mol) were randomly assigned to two test days: one day with breakfast, lunch, and dinner (YesB) and another with lunch and dinner but no breakfast (NoB). Postprandial plasma glucose, insulin, C-peptide, free fatty acids (FFA), glucagon, and intact glucagon-like peptide-1 (iGLP-1) were assessed.
RESULTS Compared with YesB, lunch area under the curves for 0–180 min (AUC0–180) for plasma glucose, FFA, and glucagon were 36.8, 41.1, and 14.8% higher, respectively, whereas the AUC0-180 for insulin and iGLP-1 were 17% and 19% lower, respectively, on the NoB day (P < 0.0001). Similarly, dinner AUC0-180 for glucose, FFA, and glucagon were 26.6, 29.6, and 11.5% higher, respectively, and AUC0-180 for insulin and iGLP-1 were 7.9% and 16.5% lower on the NoB day compared with the YesB day (P < 0.0001). Furthermore, insulin peak was delayed 30 min after lunch and dinner on the NoB day compared with the YesB day.
CONCLUSIONS Skipping breakfast increases PPHG after lunch and dinner in association with lower iGLP-1 and impaired insulin response. This study shows a long-term influence of breakfast on glucose regulation that persists throughout the day. Breakfast consumption could be a successful strategy for reduction of PPHG in type 2 diabetes.
- Received April 12, 2015.
- Accepted June 17, 2015.
- © 2015 by the American Diabetes Association. Readers may use this article as long as the work is properly cited, the use is educational and not for profit, and the work is not altered.