OBJECTIVE Diabetes is a common cause of shortened life expectancy. We aimed to assess the association between diabetes and cause-specific death.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We used the pooled analysis of individual data from 12 Spanish population cohorts with 10-year follow-up. Participants had no previous history of cardiovascular diseases and were 35–79 years old. Diabetes status was self-reported or defined as glycemia >125 mg/dL at baseline. Vital status and causes of death were ascertained by medical records review and linkage with the official death registry. The hazard ratios and cumulative mortality function were assessed with two approaches, with and without competing risks: proportional subdistribution hazard (PSH) and cause-specific hazard (CSH), respectively. Multivariate analyses were fitted for cardiovascular, cancer, and noncardiovascular noncancer deaths.
RESULTS We included 55,292 individuals (15.6% with diabetes and overall mortality of 9.1%). The adjusted hazard ratios showed that diabetes increased mortality risk: 1) cardiovascular death, CSH = 2.03 (95% CI 1.63–2.52) and PSH = 1.99 (1.60–2.49) in men; and CSH = 2.28 (1.75–2.97) and PSH = 2.23 (1.70–2.91) in women; 2) cancer death, CSH = 1.37 (1.13–1.67) and PSH = 1.35 (1.10–1.65) in men; and CSH = 1.68 (1.29–2.20) and PSH = 1.66 (1.25–2.19) in women; and 3) noncardiovascular noncancer death, CSH = 1.53 (1.23–1.91) and PSH = 1.50 (1.20–1.89) in men; and CSH = 1.89 (1.43–2.48) and PSH = 1.84 (1.39–2.45) in women. In all instances, the cumulative mortality function was significantly higher in individuals with diabetes.
CONCLUSIONS Diabetes is associated with premature death from cardiovascular disease, cancer, and noncardiovascular noncancer causes. The use of CSH and PSH provides a comprehensive view of mortality dynamics in a population with diabetes.
- Received March 21, 2016.
- Accepted June 27, 2016.
- © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.