Association Between High and Very High Albuminuria and Nighttime Blood Pressure: Influence of Diabetes and Chronic Kidney Disease
OBJECTIVE Nighttime blood pressure (BP) and albuminuria are two important and independent predictors of cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Here, we examined the quantitative differences in nighttime systolic BP (SBP) across albuminuria levels in patients with and without diabetes and chronic kidney disease.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS A total of 16,546 patients from the Spanish Ambulatory BP Monitoring Registry cohort (mean age 59.6 years, 54.9% men) were analyzed. Patients were classified according to estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR), as ≥60 or <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 (low eGFR), and urine albumin-to-creatinine ratio, as normoalbuminuria (<30 mg/g), high albuminuria (30–300 mg/g), or very high albuminuria (>300 mg/g). Office and 24-h BP were determined with standardized methods and conditions.
RESULTS High albuminuria was associated with a statistically significant and clinically substantial higher nighttime SBP (6.8 mmHg higher than with normoalbuminuria, P < 0.001). This association was particularly striking at very high albuminuria among patients with diabetes and low eGFR (16.5 mmHg, P < 0.001). Generalized linear models showed that after full adjustment for demographic, lifestyles, and clinical characteristics, nighttime SBP was 4.8 mmHg higher in patients with high albuminuria than in those with normoalbuminuria (P < 0.001), and patients with very high albuminuria had a 6.1 mmHg greater nighttime SBP than those with high albuminuria (P < 0.001). These differences were 3.8 and 3.1 mmHg, respectively, among patients without diabetes, and 6.5 and 8 mmHg among patients with diabetes (P < 0.001).
CONCLUSIONS Albuminuria in hypertensive patients is accompanied by quantitatively striking higher nighttime SBP, particularly in those with diabetes with very high albuminuria and low eGFR.
- Received April 5, 2016.
- Accepted July 20, 2016.
- © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.