OBJECTIVE Dipeptidyl peptidase 4 inhibitors may have a protective effect in diabetic nephropathy.
RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS We studied renal outcomes of 16,492 patients with type 2 diabetes, randomized to saxagliptin versus placebo and followed for a median of 2.1 years in the Saxagliptin Assessment of Vascular Outcomes Recorded in Patients with Diabetes Mellitus Thrombolysis in Myocardial Infarction 53 trial.
RESULTS At baseline: 9,696 (58.8%) subjects had normoalbuminuria (albumin/creatinine ratio [ACR] <30 mg/g), 4,426 (26.8%) microalbuminuria (ACR 30–300 mg/g), and 1,638 (9.9%) macroalbuminuria (ACR >300 mg/g). Treatment with saxagliptin was associated with improvement in and/or less deterioration in ACR categories from baseline to end of trial (EOT) (P = 0.021, P < 0.001, and P = 0.049 for individuals with baseline normoalbuminuria, microalbuminuria, and macroalbuminuria, respectively). At 2 years, the difference in mean ACR change between saxagliptin and placebo arms was −19.3 mg/g (P = 0.033) for estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) >50 mL/min/BSA, −105 mg/g (P = 0.011) for 50 ≥ eGFR ≥ 30 mL/min/BSA, and −245.2 mg/g (P = 0.086) for eGFR <30 mL/min/BSA. Analyzing ACR as a continuous variable showed reduction in ACR with saxagliptin (1 year, P < 0.0001; 2 years, P = 0.0143; and EOT, P = 0.0158). The change in ACR did not correlate with that in HbA1c (r = 0.041, 0.052, and 0.036; 1 year, 2 years, and EOT, respectively). The change in eGFR was similar in the saxagliptin and placebo groups. Safety renal outcomes, including doubling of serum creatinine, initiation of chronic dialysis, renal transplantation, or serum creatinine >6.0 mg/dL, were similar as well.
CONCLUSIONS Treatment with saxagliptin improved ACR, even in the normoalbuminuric range, without affecting eGFR. The beneficial effect of saxagliptin on albuminuria could not be explained by its effect on glycemic control.
- Received March 21, 2016.
- Accepted September 27, 2016.
- © 2016 by the American Diabetes Association.