Table 2—

Results of multilevel linear regression for HbA1c levels

Fixed effectsNon–insulin-treated patients
Insulin-treated patients
βPβP
Level 1 covariates
 Women0.220.0010.330.038
 BMI0.020.0030.040.050
 Diabetes duration0.02<0.0010.010.320
 Diabetes treatment
  Diet alone versus oral agents (rc)−0.71<0.001
 SMBG frequency
  ≥1/day0.300.008
  ≥1/week0.27<0.001
  <1/week or never (rc)
 Combined effect of SMBG and ISM
  ISM yes/SMBG ≥1/day−0.550.015
  ISM yes/SMBG ≥1/week−0.310.178
  ISM yes/SMBG <1/week−0.330.244
  ISM no/SMBG any (rc)
Random effectsEstimateProportion of total varianceEstimateProportion of total variance
 Level 2 variance (random intercept)0.6227%0.6219%
 Level 1 variance (residual)1.7173%2.6181%

Deviance test for the random interceptχ2Pχ2P

237.62<0.000136.70<0.0001
  • rc, reference category.