Table 2—

Characteristics associated with the progression to microalbuminuria and DN by type of diabetes

VariableType 1 diabetes
Type 2 diabetes
NonprogressorsProgressorsNonprogressorsProgressors
n5582312
Age (years)16 (10–28)15 (13–17)57 (48–63)58 (53–63)
Sex
 Female25 (46)3 (38)9 (39)5 (42)
 Male30 (54)5 (62)14 (61)7 (58)
Race
 White52 (96)6 (75)*19 (86)9 (75)
 Black2 (4)2 (25)3 (14)3 (25)
Duration (years) 6 (3–13)7 (3–12)8 (5–15)10 (7–13)
BMI (kg/m2)21.1 (18.2–24.2)19.1 (16.3–20.4)31.2 (27.2–33.9)30.4 (26.8–33.2)
GHb (%)10.8 (9.4–12.3)17.9 (11.5–18.9)*9.9 (9.3–12.0)12.5 (10.9–13.6)
SBP (mmHg)116 (111–125)126 (119–132)*135 (126–141)131 (117–136)
DBP (mmHg)68 (61–75)71 (64–79)76 (72–82)76 (70–80)
TCHOL (mg/dl)176 (150–202)166 (152–222)176 (156–241)209 (173–258)
TRIG (mg/dl)105 (71–157)216 (158–234)*182 (103–265)279 (120–371)
HDL (mg/dl)44 (38–58)45 (41–56)36 (31–43)31 (29–38)
ACE inhibitor at follow-up
 Yes 3 (6) 7 (88)*18 (78)9 (75)
 No51 (94)1 (12)  6 (22)3 (25)
Family history of hypertension
 Yes20 (37)2 (25) 11 (65)7 (64)
 No34 (63)6 (75)  6 (35)4 (36)
Smoking
 Yes10 (21)1 (13) 11 (65)8 (80)
 No38 (79)7 (87)  6 (35)2 (20)
  • Data are median (25 and 75% IQR) for continuous variables and frequency (%) for categorical variables.

  • *

    * Statistically significant at P < 0.05 progressors vs. nonprogressors, type 1 diabetes;

  • statistically significant at P < 0.05 progressors vs. nonprogressors, type 2 diabetes. DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure; TCHOL, total cholesterol; TRIG, triglycerides.