Table 1—

Baseline subject characteristics

PRT groupControl group
n3131
Age (years)66 ± 266 ± 1
Sex (female/male)21/1019/12
BMI (kg/m2)30.9 ± 1.131.2 ± 1.0
Hispanic descent (%)
 Caribbean (Puerto Rico, Dominican, or Cuban)9084
 Central American and Panamanian710
 South American36
Education (years)7 ± 16 ± 1
Diabetes duration (years)8 ± 111 ± 1
Glycosylated hemoglobin (%)8.7 ± 0.38.4 ± 0.3
Taking diabetes medication
 Insulin use17 (5)48 (15)*
  Insulin dose prescription (Units)78 ± 2372 ± 10
 Oral hypoglycemic use
  Sulfonylureas61 (19)52 (16)
  Biguanides34 (10)52 (15)
  Troglitazone10 (3)10 (3)
Nonpharmacological diabetes treatment10 (3)4 (1)
Cholesterol-lowering medication48 (14)38 (11)
Blood pressure medications83 (24)79 (23)
Total number of medications3.9 ± 0.33.1 ± 0.4
Hypertension ≥130/85 mmHg48 (14)69 (20)
Cardiovascular disease55 (17)64 (20)
Number of chronic conditions§2.5 ± 0.22.9 ± 0.4
Current smoker0 (0)7 (2)
  • Data are means ± SE and % (n).

  • *

    * P = 0.05, different by group. Baseline comparisons between groups were assessed using independent sample t test comparisons for continuous and log-transformed variables, and χ2 for categorical variables;

  • sulfonylureas: glyburide and glipizide; biguanides: metformin; troglitazone: Rezulin;

  • determined by history of coronary artery disease, stroke, or myocardial infarction or current use of medications to treat any of these conditions;

  • §

    § determined by self-report via health questionnaire and during physical examination.