Table 2—

Biochemical and clinical parameters

Dependent variablePRT groupControl groupP*
n3131
Plasma glycosylated hemoglobin concentrations (%)
 Baseline8.7 ± 0.38.4 ± 0.3
 Final7.6 ± 0.28.3 ± 0.50.01
Muscle glycogen stores (mmol glucose/kg muscle)
 Baseline60.3 ± 3.961.4 ± 7.7
 Final79.1 ± 5.047.2 ± 6.70.04
Fasting plasma glucose concentrations (mmol/l)
 Baseline8.8 ± 0.59.7 ± 0.7
 Final7.9 ± 0.48.9 ± 0.70.34
Serum triglyceride concentrations (mmol/l)
 Baseline (median)1.521.45
  Range(0.56–6.60)(0.35–5.27)
 Final (median)1.311.560.08
  Range(0.43–3.59)(0.32–4.77)
Total cholesterol concentrations (mmol/l)
 Baseline4.97 ± 0.184.73 ± 0.18
 Final4.81 ± 0.164.70 ± 0.180.59
HDL cholesterol concentrations (mmol/l)
 Baseline1.18 ± 0.051.23 ± 0.07
 Final1.25 ± 0.061.24 ± 0.070.46
LDL cholesterol concentrations (mmol/l)
 Baseline2.94 ± 0.182.71 ± 0.15
 Final2.70 ± 0.133.05 ± 0.150.13
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)
 Baseline145.2 ± 3.6142.7 ± 4.1
 Final135.5 ± 3.3150.4 ± 3.90.05
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)
 Baseline72.6 ± 1.171.1 ± 2.1
 Final69.2 ± 1.270.8 ± 1.40.52
Heart rate (beats/min)
 Baseline71 ± 372 ± 2
 Final72 ± 171 ± 30.74
  • Data are means ± SE.

  • *

    * ANCOVA with the absolute change on each dependent variable (week 16 − week 0) adjusted for insulin use, years of diabetes, sex, and the changes in physical activity and in diabetes medication regimens;

  • 10 subjects refused to have a muscle biopsy done—completed data are available for 26 exercisers and 24 control subjects.