Table 1—

Characteristics of the sample under investigation

Type 1 diabetic patientsType 2 diabetic patients
n224401
Duration of diabetes (years)17.8 ± 12.112.7 ± 9.62
BMI (kg/m2)24.8 ± 4.3428.9 ± 5.85
Hypoglycemia with professional treatment/year0.63 ± 0.990.28 ± 0.76
Hyperglycemia needing professional treatment/year0.23 ± 0.710.20 ± 0.62
Secondary diseases (%)
 Total0.77 ± 1.271.11 ± 1.37
 Polyneuropathy22.637.6
 Retinopathy19.911.0
 Coronary heart disease8.334.6
 Nephropathy6.86.7
 Periphery Angiopathy6.313.6
 Erectile dysfunction5.96.7
 Diabetic foot2.73.6
 Amputation1.40.8
Therapy (%)
 Diet8.3
 Tablets30.3
 Conventional insulin therapy7.625.8
 Intensified insulin therapy (“pen”)40.228.5
 Continuous subcutaneous insulin  infusion (“pump”)50.07.3
HbA1c (%)8.00 ± 1.457.73 ± 1.36
Δ HbA1c (% above normal)1.91 ± 1.451.55 ± 1.34
Level of education (%)
 No3.37.0
 Grade 1022.738.2
 Grade 1127.621.3
 Grade 1214.94.8
 Technical institute13.815.0
 University17.713.7
Employment status (%)
 Unemployed6.63.7
 In training8.27.5
 Housewife/husband48.416.8
 Employed11.20.9
 Retired early12.113.0
 Retired due to age13.758.1
Age (years)43.8 ± 14.963.1 ± 9.32
Sex (F/M) (%)53.5/46.752.1/47.9
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated.