Table 1—

Comparison of fasting insulin, fasting glucose, and 2-h glucose levels in estrogen use groups at baseline visit

Model GroupsAdjusted mean
Fasting insulin* (pmol/1)Fasting glucose (mmol/l)2-h glucose (mmol/l)
Current users (n=134)
Past users (n=119)
Never users (n=604)
Current users4.35.57.5
Past users4.35.77.2
Never users4.45.77.1
Covariates remaining in the adjusted models§BMI, WHR, American Indian heritage, physical activity, smokingBMI, WHR, baseline age, family history of diabetesBMI, WHR, education (years), SHS center, smoking
  • *

    * Because of the skewed distribution of fasting insulin level, it was log-transformed in all analyses.

  • P < 0.05 (current users vs. past users and never users)

  • P < 0.05 (current users vs. never users).

  • §

    § The adjusted mean is only adjusted for those covariates that were significantly related to fasting insulin, fasting glucose, or 2-h glucose as described in research design and methods.