Table 2—

Relative risk of type 2 diabetes by quintiles of dietary fats

Quintile of intake
P for trend
1 (low)2345 (high)
Total fat
 Median (E%)2429323539
 Age- and energy-adjusted RR*11.22 (1.00–1.48)1.63 (1.35–1.96)1.58 (1.31–1.91)1.88 (1.56–2.25)<0.0001
 Multivariate RR11.19 (0.98–1.45)1.56 (1.30–1.88)1.49 (1.23–1.80)1.63 (1.35–1.96)<0.0001
 Further adjustment for diet11.10 (0.90–1.34)1.37 (1.13–1.66)1.24 (1.02–1.51)1.27 (1.04–1.55)0.02
 Further adjustment for diet and BMI§10.99 (0.81–1.21)1.14 (0.94–1.39)1.00 (0.82–1.22)0.97 (0.79–1.18)0.63
Saturated fat
 Median (E%)7.69.6111214
 Age- and energy-adjusted RR*11.51 (1.24–1.84)1.66 (1.37–2.02)2.06 (1.70–2.50)2.01 (1.66–2.44)<0.0001
 Multivariate RR11.47 (1.21–1.79)1.58 (1.30–1.92)1.90 (1.57–2.29)1.74 (1.43–2.11)<0.0001
 Further adjustment for diet11.36 (1.11–1.66)1.38 (1.13–1.69)1.57 (1.29–1.92)1.34 (1.09–1.66)0.01
 Further adjustment for diet and BMI§11.20 (0.98–1.46)1.12 (0.92–1.38)1.22 (1.00–1.49)0.97 (0.79–1.20)0.47
Oleic acid
 Median (E%)8.010111214
 Age- and energy-adjusted RR*11.23 (1.02–1.49)1.49 (1.24–1.79)1.66 (1.38–1.99)1.63 (1.35–1.96)<0.0001
 Multivariate RR11.23 (1.02–1.49)1.46 (1.21–1.75)1.59 (1.32–1.91)1.47 (1.22–1.77)<0.0001
 Further adjustment for diet11.13 (0.93–1.37)1.27 (1.05–1.53)1.32 (1.09–1.60)1.15 (0.94–1.40)0.12
 Further adjustment for diet and BMI§11.02 (0.84–1.24)1.09 (0.90–1.32)1.09 (0.90–1.33)0.93 (0.76–1.14)0.53
Linoleic acid
 Median (E%)3.54.44.95.66.8
 Age- and energy-adjusted RR*11.05 (0.88–1.24)1.09 (0.92–1.29)1.13 (0.96–1.34)0.98 (0.83–1.17)0.90
 Multivariate RR11.06 (0.89–1.27)1.12 (0.94–1.33)1.14 (0.96–1.35)0.95 (0.79–1.13)0.60
 Further adjustment for diet11.04 (0.88–1.24)1.09 (0.92–1.30)1.10 (0.93–1.31)0.92 (0.77–1.10)0.39
 Further adjustment for diet and BMI§10.99 (0.83–1.18)1.03 (0.86–1.23)1.06 (0.89–1.26)0.89 (0.74–1.06)0.27
Trans-fat
 Median (E%)0.71.01.31.52.0
 Age- and energy-adjusted RR*11.20 (1.00–1.44)1.24 (1.04–1.49)1.33 (1.11–1.59)1.39 (1.16–1.67)0.0004
 Multivariate RR11.17 (0.98–1.41)1.22 (1.02–1.46)1.28 (1.07–1.53)1.28 (1.07–1.53)0.009
emsp;Further adjustment for diet11.06 (0.89–1.28)1.05 (0.87–1.27)1.06 (0.87–1.28)1.02 (0.84–1.24)1.00
 Further adjustment for diet and BMI§10.95 (0.79–1.15)0.93 (0.77–1.12)0.91 (0.75–1.11)0.90 (0.74–1.10)0.33
α-Linolenic acid
 Median (mg/day)321396458533671
 Age- and energy-adjusted RR*11.06 (0.89–1.26)1.18 (0.99–1.40)1.16 (0.97–1.38)1.15 (0.96–1.37)0.12
 Multivariate RR11.07 (0.90–1.28)1.16 (0.97–1.37)1.11 (0.94–1.33)1.05 (0.88–1.26)0.64
 Further adjustment for diet11.07 (0.90–1.28)1.15 (0.96–1.36)1.10 (0.92–1.31)1.01 (0.85–1.20)0.93
 Further adjustment for diet and BMI§11.03 (0.86–1.23)1.10 (0.92–1.31)1.00 (0.84–1.20)0.93 (0.78–1.11)0.27
Long-chain n-3 fatty acids
 Median (mg/day)80155250350570
 Age- and energy-adjusted RR*10.98 (0.83–1.16)0.88 (0.74–1.05)0.95 (0.81–1.13)0.88 (0.74–1.04)0.13
 Multivariate RR11.01 (0.85–1.20)0.91 (0.77–1.09)0.99 (0.83–1.17)0.90 (0.75–1.07)0.20
 Further adjustment for diet11.03 (0.87–1.22)0.95 (0.79–1.13)1.05 (0.89–1.25)1.01 (0.84–1.20)0.91
 Further adjustment for diet and BMI§11.01 (0.85–1.19)0.95 (0.79–1.13)1.05 (0.88–1.25)1.01 (0.84–1.21)0.81
  • Data are RR (95% CI), unless otherwise indicated. Quintiles were based on energy percentage of fat intakes, except for quintiles of α-linolenic acid and long-chain n-3 fat, which were based on intake in milligrams per day adjusted for energy intake with the residual method.

  • *

    * RRs (95% CI) adjusted for age (5-year categories) and total energy intake (quintiles);

  • adjusted for age (5-year categories), total energy intake (quintiles), time period (6 periods), physical activity (quintiles of METs), cigarette smoking (never, past, and current smoking of 1–14, 15–24, and ≥25 cigarettes/day), alcohol consumption (0, 0.1–4, 5–14, 15–29, and ≥30 g/day), hypercholesterolemia (yes/no), hypertension (yes/no), and family history of type 2 diabetes (yes/no);

  • multivariate model with additional adjustment for intake (quintiles) of cereal fiber and magnesium;

  • §

    § multivariate model with additional adjustment for intake (quintiles) of cereal fiber and magnesium and BMI (<23.0, 23.0–23.9, 24.0–24.9, 25.0–26.9, 27.0–28.9, 29.0–30.9, 31.0–32.9, 33.0–34.9, and ≥35 kg/m2).