Table 4—

Relative risk of type 2 diabetes according to processed meat consumption

Frequency of consumption (servings)
P for trend
<1/month1–3/month1/week2–4/week≥5/week
Total processed meat
 Cases/person-years114/61,065278/113,393251/104,561443/131,701234/55,472
 Age- and energy-adjusted RR*11.36 (1.10–1.70)1.43 (1.14–1.79)2.02 (1.62–2.52)2.77 (2.11–3.65)<0.0001
 Multivariate RR11.13 (0.90–1.41)1.04 (0.82–1.30)1.35 (1.08–1.68)1.46 (1.14–1.86)<0.0001
Bacon
 Cases/person-years403/166,812398/160,277276/81,115234/56,084
 Age- and energy-adjusted RR*11.08 (0.94–1.24)1.48 (1.26–1.74)1.75 (1.47–2.09)<0.0001
 Multivariate RR10.96 (0.83–1.10)1.19 (1.01–1.40)1.33 (1.11–1.58)0.0002
Hot dogs
 Cases/person-years421/181,810557/191,817221/61,18697/22,973
 Age- and energy-adjusted RR*11.32 (1.16–1.50)1.78 (1.50–2.11)2.02 (1.59–2.55)<0.0001
 Multivariate RR11.14 (1.00–1.30)1.27 (1.07–1.51)1.26 (1.00–1.60)0.03
Other processed meats
 Cases/person-years245/110,404399/161,400294/91,407375/100,222
 Age- and energy-adjusted RR*11.17 (1.00–1.38)1.63 (1.37–1.94)1.88 (1.58–2.25)<0.0001
 Multivariate RR10.95 (0.81–1.12)1.12 (0.94–1.34)1.18 (0.99–1.41)0.01
  • Total processed meat includes bacon, hot dogs, and other processed meats (e.g. sausage, salami, and bologna). The total number of cases is <1,321 and the total number of person-years <466,508 because of missing values.

  • *

    * RRs (95% CI) adjusted for age (5-year categories) and total energy intake (quintiles);

  • RR adjusted for age (5-year categories), total energy intake (quintiles), time period (6 periods), physical activity (quintiles of METs), cigarette smoking (never, past, and current smoking of 1–14, 15–24, and ≥25 cigarettes/day), alcohol consumption (0, 0.1–4, 5–14, 15–29, and ≥30 g/day), hypercholesterolemia (yes/no), hypertension (yes/no), family history of type 2 diabetes (yes/no), intake (quintiles) of cereal fiber and magnesium, and BMI (<23.0, 23.0–23.9, 24.0–24.9, 25.0–26.9, 27.0–28.9, 29.0–30.9, 31.0–32.9, 33.0–34.9, and ≥35 kg/m2).