Table 2—

Effects of diet on insulin sensitivity and secretion and serum lipids in 25 healthy adults

M dietS dietT diet
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)4.9 ± 0.14.8 ± 0.14.7 ± 0.1
Fasting insulin (pmol/l)26.2 ± 1.824.0 ± 1.825.2 ± 1.8
SI × 10−4 (min−1 · μU−1 · ml−1)3.44 ± 0.263.20 ± 0.263.40 ± 0.26
SG (min−1)1.95 ± 0.111.76 ± 0.111.90 ± 0.11
AIRg (μU · ml−1 · min−1)440.4 ± 45.1418.9 ± 45.3399.3 ± 45.1
Disposition index1,362.3 ± 140.01,291.3 ± 141.11,273.1 ± 140.0
SI* × 10−4 (min−1 · μU−1 · ml−1)3.52 ± 0.253.67 ± 0.263.40 ± 0.26
SG* (min−1)2.56 ± 0.362.77 ± 0.372.72 ± 0.37
Basal insulin secretion (μU · ml−1 · min−1)0.52 ± 0.040.54 ± 0.40.57 ± 0.04
No. insulin bursts per 90 min7.95 ± 0.267.91 ± 0.268.27 ± 0.26
Total insulin secretion (pmol/l)473.4 ± 29.4461.4 ± 29.4437.4 ± 29.4
Mean insulin concentration (pmol/l)26.4 ± 1.625.2 ± 1.627.6 ± 1.6
Insulin production rate (pmol/l)185.4 ± 25.8163.2 ± 25.2183.6 ± 25.2
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)3.78 ± 0.113.93 ± 0.113.90 ± 0.11
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)2.15 ± 0.092.20 ± 0.092.24 ± 0.09
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.23 ± 0.041.28 ± 0.041.23 ± 0.04
Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.88 ± 0.100.88 ± 0.100.94 ± 0.10
  • Data are means ± SE, adjusted for time and reflect measures made at the end of each 4-week diet period. SI* and SG* are parameters from stable-label minimal model. Lipid data are also adjusted for sex.

  • Significantly different from palmitic acid diet (P < 0.05).