Table 1—

Baseline sociodemographic characteristics, lifestyle behaviors, health care practices, and clinical characteristics according to use of specialist care: EDC

CharacteristicNonspecialistSpecialistP
n215214
Demographic
 Age (years)30.5 ± 6.924.0 ± 7.3<0.0001
 Duration (years)21.5 ± 7.316.2 ± 6.7<0.0001
 Sex (%male)52.6 (113)43.9 (94)0.07
 Income (earning >$20,000/year)86.0 (154)86.7 (143)0.86
 Educational level (beyond high school)61.5 (126)70.7 (116)0.06
Health care practices
 Weekly testing of blood glucose50.0 (105)65.2 (135)0.002
 More than two insulin injections per day6.7 (14)9.2 (19)0.34
 Saw physician in last year78.5 (146)90.5 (180)0.001
 Saw eye doctor in the last 2 years67.9 (125)74.6 (132)0.16
Clinical characteristics
 HbA1 (%)10.2 ± 1.710.3 ± 1.80.35
 HDL cholesterol (mg/dl)55.0 ± 13.354.4 ± 1.70.62
 LDL cholesterol (mg/dl)116.2 ± 33.1108.2 ± 30.80.01
 Total/cholesterol (mg/dl)190.2 ± 38.6180.3 ± 36.80.007
 Triglycerides (mg/dl)*97.9 ± 69.493.3 ± 58.50.54
 AER (μg/min)347.8 (984.7)178.5 (599.1)0.0003
 Hypertensive17.2 (37)8.4 (18)0.006
Lifestyle behaviors
 Alcohol use (drinks/week)4.7 ± 7.83.9 ± 6.80.36
 Ever smoked42.4 (89)23.8 (49)0.001
  • Data are means ± SD or % (n).

  • *

    * Natural log-transformed before analyses. Specialist care is defined as the percent of diabetes duration spent in specialist care (>65%) compared with nonspecialist care (≤65%).