Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the subjects who completed the 1-year follow-up

ParametersNDE groupControl group
n7977
Age (year)55.2 ± 7.454.9 ± 6.7
Body mass index24.5 ± 3.024.2 ± 2.7
PG (mmol/l)
 FPG*6.1 ± 0.555.5 ± 0.55
 1 h after oral glucose challenge10.7 ± 1.810.6 ± 1.6
 2 h after oral glucose challenge8.2 ± 1.57.3 ± 1.7
Serum lipids (mg/dl)
 Total cholesterol201.3 ± 32.0199.5 ± 37.0
 HDL cholesterol52.2 ± 12.252.8 ± 15.2
 Triglycerides128.6 ± 64.0127.1 ± 71.1
Liver function (IU/l)
 Alanine aminotransferase25.9 ± 7.824.0 ± 7.7
 Aspartate aminotransferase31.7 ± 19.926.9 ± 14.3
Blood pressure (mmHG)
 Systolic122.3 ± 14.4121.1 ± 14.3
 Diastolic77.4 ± 10.276.4 ± 10.8
Absolute value of the “overintake/underintake fraction” for total energy intake (%)
 Breakfast25.4 ± 16.423.6 ± 12.9
 Lunch13.8 ± 9.312.8 ± 11.6
 Dinner60.5 ± 33.662.0 ± 37.1
 Daily21.6 ± 15.019.9 ± 14.9
Smoking status (%)
 Yes22 (28)30 (39)
 No57 (72)47 (61)
  • Data are means ± SD and n (%).

  • * P < 0.05;

  • P < 0.01 for the comparison with the NDE group by two-tailed Wilcoxon’s rank-sum test. Data in bold are statistically significant.