Table 1—

Clinical parameters, including fasting C-peptide levels of patients with LADA and those with adult-onset type 1 and type 2 diabetes

ParameterLADA (n = 54)Adult-onset type 1 diabetes (n = 57)Type 2 diabetes (n = 190, for C-peptide n = 90)Comparison of groups*
LADA-type 1LADA-type 2Type 1-type 2
Age (years)59.0 (47.5–67.0)44.5 (34.0–53.0)63.0 (53.0–72.0)<0.00010.089<0.0001
Sex (M/F)25/2930/27103/87NSNSNS
Duration of diabetes (years)4.00 (1.0–9.5)0.10 (0.1–4.5)8.00 (3.0–15.5)0.0020.0005<0.0001
Treatment with insulin43 (79.6)57 (100)84 (44.2)
HbA1c (%)8.9 (7.8–11.2)9.7 (7.3–12.8)8.80 (7.6–10.6)NSNS0.01
Fasting C-peptide at onset (nmol/l)0.53 (0.24–1.40)0.46 (0.24–1.05)1.23 (0.70–2.55)NS (0.403)0.02260.0009
Fasting C-peptide at onset (nmol/l)0.53 (0.24–1.40)0.46 (0.24–1.05)1.23 (0.70–2.55)0.0253§NS§ (0.113)0.0007§
Fasting C-peptide after onset, 1–10 years (nmol/l)0.34 (0.21–1.87)0.40 (0.24–1.05)0.68 (0.41–1.02)
Fasting C-peptide after onset, >10 years (nmol/l)0.40 (0.16–1.17)0.03 (0.01–0.56)0.54 (0.40–0.82)
BMI (kg/m2)23.5 (22.6–27.1)23.1 (21.2–26.6)29.1 (26.0–32.0)NS<0.0001<0.0001
Waist-to-hip ratio0.87 (0.83–0.91)0.84 (0.77–0.94)0.95 (0.88–1.01)NS0.00290.08
Hypertension1710101NS0.00280.027
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.3 (4.5–6.1)5.4 (4.6–6.2)6.0 (5.0–6.9)NS0.0010.02
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.2 (0.9–1.8)1.4 (0.8–2.7)2.2 (1.5–3.5)NS0.0010.0079
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.4 (1.1–1.7)1.2 (1.0–1.5)1.1 (0.9–1.3)NS<0.00010.001
  • Data are median (interquartile range), n, or n (%).

  • *

    * P value by logistic regression analyses, adjusted for age and duration of diabetes.

  • Mann-Whitney test;

  • Fisher’s exact test;

  • §

    § two-way-ANOVA test, for duration of diabetes. NS, not significant.