Table 1

Patient characteristics according to baseline quartiles (range) of serum OPN

1st
(0.5–9.0 µg/L)2nd
(9.0–14.0 µg/L)3rd
(14.0–20.6 µg/L)4th
(20.6–208.9 µg/L)P value
n533537539536
Sex (% men)41505561<0.001
Age (years)38 ± 137 ± 138 ± 137 ± 10.12
Duration of diabetes (years)19 ± 120 ± 122 ± 123 ± 1<0.001
Age at onset (years)19 ± 117 ± 116 ± 114 ± 1<0.001
BMI (kg/m2)25.1 ± 0.225.2 ± 0.124.9 ± 0.125.0 ± 0.20.39
Waist-to-hip ratio0.85 ± 0.010.86 ± 0.010.87 ± 0.010.87 ± 0.010.001
 Women0.81 ± 0.010.80 ± 0.010.82 ± 0.010.81 ± 0.010.15
 Men0.91 ± 0.010.91 ± 0.010.91 ± 0.010.91 ± 0.010.89
Blood pressure (mmHg)
 Systolic130 ± 1132 ± 1133 ± 1135 ± 1<0.001
 Diastolic80 ± 180 ± 179 ± 180 ± 10.29
A1C (%)8.4 ± 0.18.4 ± 0.18.4 ± 0.18.6 ± 0.10.04
A1C (mmol/mol)68 ± 168 ± 168 ± 170 ± 10.04
Cholesterol (mmol/L)
 Total5.1 ± 0.15.0 ± 0.14.9 ± 0.14.9 ± 0.10.32
 HDL1.3 ± 0.11.3 ± 0.11.3 ± 0.11.3 ± 0.10.01
 LDL3.3 ± 0.13.2 ± 0.13.1 ± 0.13.1 ± 0.1<0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/L)1.01 (0.78–1.43)1.06 (0.77–1.45)1.05 (0.78–1.57)1.12 (0.82–1.59)0.24
Insulin dose (IU/kg)0.69 ± 0.010.71 ± 0.010.71 ± 0.010.71 ± 0.010.32
eGFR (mL/min per 1.73 m2)92 ± 193 ± 188 ± 183 ± 1<0.001
Urinary AER (mg/24 h)8.7 (5.9–18.6)11.1 (6.6–36.9)13.4 (7.2–64.5)28.9 (9.0–327.7)<0.001
Diabetic nephropathy (%)*9152237<0.001
Antihypertensive medication (%)28303650<0.001
History of CVD (%)46710<0.001
Current smoking (%)232422280.07
Severe retinal disease (%)22273545<0.001
hs-CRP (mg/L)1.8 (1.2–3.4)2.1 (1.3–4.0)2.0 (1.2–3.8)2.3 (1.4–5.0)<0.001
OPN (µg/L)6.3 ± 0.111.4 ± 0.116.9 ± 0.131.4 ± 0.6<0.001
  • Continuous data are presented as mean ± SEM, except for AER, triglycerides, and hs-CRP where median (IQR) is presented. Categorical data are presented as percentages.

  • *Patients with macroalbuminuria.