Table 2—

Clinical data and dietary intake in subjects with diabetes and control subjects

DiabetesControl subjectsRecommendation (ISPAD)P value
n5843
Age13.5 ± 2.413 ± 2.70.356
Sex (M/F)*32/2623/200.867
Duration (years)3.8 (0.6–13)
Insulin dose (units/kg)1.1 ± 0.36
HbA1c8.75 (6.7–14.0)
Energy (kJ)10,709 ± 3,33910,129 ± 3,646Sufficient for normal growth0.419
Protein (g)103.5 ± 38.493.3 ± 33.80.178
Total carbohydrate (g)314.5 ± 95.1295.3 ± 108.60.358
Total fat (g)98.1 ± 36.997.3 ± 39.70.921
Cholesterol (mg)248.4 ± 122.8275.0 ± 131.9<3000.311
Saturated fat (g)39.3 ± 16.341.4 ± 19.80.572
Monounsaturated fat (g)35.5 ± 14.633.3 ± 13.70.445
Polyunsaturated fat (g)17.5 ± 7.816.0 ± 7.60.345
Complex carbohydrate, (g)172.9 ± 51.6138.4 ± 50.70.001
Fibre intake (g)33.5 ± 12.227.7 ± 11.60.020
Refined sugar (g)41.3 ± 25.577.9 ± 48.7<0.001
% kJ from protein16.3 ± 2.115.7 ± 2.110–15%0.171
% kJ from carbohydrates47.5 ± 5.646.6 ± 5.1>50%0.417
% kJ from complex carbohydrates26.3 ± 3.822.1 ± 4.7<0.001
% kJ from fat33.6 ± 5.835.4 ± 4.730–35%0.093
% kJ from saturated fat13.4 ± 3.414.9 ± 3.8<10%0.045
% kJ from polyunsaturated fat6.0 ± 1.95.9 ± 2.1Up to 10%0.798
% kJ from monounsaturated fat12.1 ± 2.412.1 ± 1.7>10%0.912
  • Data are means ± SD (Students t test) or median (range) (Mann-Whitney U test), unless otherwise noted.

  • *

    * χ2 test.