Table 2

Body weight and composition, glycemic control, and cardiovascular risk markers after 24 weeks on an LC diet or an energy-matched HC diet*

LC diet (n = 46)HC diet (n = 47)
Week 24ChangeWeek 24ChangeP value
Body weight and composition
 Body weight (kg)88.1 (13.7)−12.0 (6.3)89.9 (14.9)−11.5 (5.5)0.57
 BMI (kg/m2)30.0 (4.4)−4.0 (2.0)30.9 (4.2)−4.0 (1.8)0.74
 Waist circumference (cm)100.5 (10.9)−10.6 (7.1)103.2 (11.9)−9.1 (6.4)0.25
 Total FFM (kg)58.8 (10.0)−1.7 (2.0)57.7 (10.6)−1.9 (1.7)0.66
 Total FM (kg)29.1 (11.8)−10.2 (5.7)32.2 (11.3)−9.6 (5.2)0.64
 FM-to-FFM ratio (kg/kg)0.5 (0.2)−0.2 (0.1)0.6 (0.2)−0.1 (0.1)0.76
Glycemic control
 Fasting glucose (mmol/L)6.8 (1.5)−1.1 (2.2)6.7 (1.6)−1.6 (2.5)0.67
 Mean glucose (mmol/L)§
  Baseline >8.66.9 (1.2)−3.4 (2.2)7.6 (1.8)−2.5 (1.6)0.01††
  Baseline ≤8.66.2 (0.8)−0.9 (1.2)6.6 (1.1)−0.8 (1.0)
 Minimum glucose (mmol/L)§4.2 (0.9)−1.9 (2.0)4.3 (1.1)−1.6 (1.6)0.81
 Maximum glucose (mmol/L)§
  Baseline >13.210.1 (2.3)−6.3 (2.6)12.7 (3.7)−3.6 (4.0)0.04‡‡
  Baseline ≤13.29.3 (1.7)−1.4 (2.3)9.3 (1.8)−2.1 (2.1)
 Glucose range (mmol/L)§5.5 (2.0)−3.6 (3.1)7.1 (3.5)−2.5 (3.8)0.049
 SDintraday (mmol/L)§1.1 (0.5)−0.9 (0.7)1.5 (0.7)−0.6 (0.8)0.004
 SDinterday (mmol/L)0.3 (0.2)−0.2 (0.5)0.4 (0.3)−0.1 (0.5)0.06
 MAGE (mmol/L)§2.9 (1.4)−2.3 (2.0)3.9 (2.1)−1.4 (2.3)0.03
 CONGA-1 (mmol/L)§1.0 (0.4)−0.6 (0.5)1.4 (0.6)−0.3 (0.6)0.002
 CONGA-4 (mmol/L)§1.6 (0.8)−1.4 (1.1)2.1 (1.1)−0.8 (1.2)0.005
 MODD (mmol/L)1.1 (0.5)−0.8 (0.7)1.5 (0.7)−0.5 (0.9)0.002
 AUCtotal per min (mmol/L)§
  Baseline >18.013.3 (2.7)−7.9 (5.0)15.4 (4.0)−5.4 (3.7)0.005§§
  Baseline ≤18.012.5 (1.7)−1.6 (3.5)12.5 (2.8)−2.5 (3.6)
CVD risk markers
 SBP (mmHg)120.1 (11.4)−11.0 (10.6)122.9 (14.2)−8.7 (12.5)0.26
 DBP (mmHg)72.4 (6.3)−8.2 (5.6)74.3 (7.5)−6.4 (7.8)0.10
 Insulin (mU/L)8.7 (4.7)−7.7 (6.2)9.5 (4.7)−6.5 (5.7)0.22
 HOMA2-IR1.2 (0.6)−1.1 (0.9)1.3 (0.7)−1.0 (0.8)0.23
 HOMA2-%B62.3 (30.8)−8.8 (19.9)64.2 (25.1)−4.7 (22.9)0.12
 Total cholesterol (mmol/L)4.0 (0.9)−0.3 (0.70)4.0 (0.9)−0.3 (0.9)0.89
 LDL-C (mmol/L)2.1 (0.8)−0.3 (0.5)2.1 (0.8)−0.3 (0.7)0.81
 HDL-C (mmol/L)
  Baseline <1.31.3 (0.2)0.2 (0.3)1.1 (0.2)0.05 (0.2)0.007‖‖
  Baseline ≥1.31.5 (0.2)0.03 (0.2)1.6 (0.2)−0.06 (0.2)
 TG (mmol/L)1.1 (0.5)−0.5 (0.5)1.3 (0.5)−0.1 (0.5)0.001
 CRP (mg/L)#2.1 (2.1)−0.6 (1.7)1.6 (1.5)−0.6 (1.7)0.62
Medications
 Antiglycemic MES0.8 (0.7)−0.5 (0.5)1.0 (1.1)−0.2 (0.5)0.003
 Proportion of cohort that achieved decrease in MES
  ≥20% decrease, n (%)31 (67.4)13 (27.7)<0.005
  ≥50% decrease, n (%)16 (34.8)8 (17.0)0.05
Physical activity**
 Mean activity count (counts/min)232.7 (88.5)44.3 (57.9)232.5 (78)51.7 (45.3)0.51
 MVPA (min/day)58.0 (25.9)11.8 (17.0)55.7 (21.6)12.6 (13.0)0.83
 MVPA (% of total wear time)4.3 (1.9)0.8 (1.2)4.1 (1.6)0.9 (1.0)0.81
  • Data are means (SD), unless otherwise stated. DBP, diastolic blood pressure; MVPA, moderate- to vigorous-intensity physical activity; SBP, systolic blood pressure. To convert mmol/L to mg/dL, multiply by 18 (for glucose), 38.7 (for cholesterol), and 88.6 (for TGs).

  • *Total analyzed n = 93 (LC 46 and HC 47) for all data unless otherwise stated.

  • P value refers to between-group differences over time (diet effect) by ANCOVA and J-N procedure where appropriate.

  • ‡Total analyzed n = 92 (LC 45 and HC 47) for body composition data; DEXA scan was not performed at baseline for one participant in LC diet group.

  • §Total analyzed n = 91 (LC 46 and HC 45) for CGM data; CGM device did not collect valid data for two participants in the HC diet group at 24 weeks due to poor system connectivity.

  • ‖Total analyzed n = 83 (LC 42 and HC 41) that met requirement of 48-h valid CGM data collection to calculate comparisons between 2 successive days.

  • ¶Total analyzed n = 82 (LC 41 and HC 41) for insulin and HOMA2 data; 11 participants on insulin medication were excluded from these analyses.

  • #Total analyzed n = 84 (LC 43 and HC 41) for CRP data; nine participants with CRP >10 mg/L were excluded from these analyses.

  • **Total analyzed n = 91 (LC 45 and HC 46); two participants with accelerometry data that did not meet the validity criteria were excluded.

  • ††Significant group × baseline interaction, with significant group effect for baseline mean glucose >8.6 mmol/L (LC 18 and HC 22).

  • ‡‡Significant group × baseline interaction, with significant group effect for baseline maximum glucose >13.2 mmol/L (LC 26 and HC 28).

  • §§Significant group × baseline interaction, with significant group effect for baseline AUCtotal per min >18.0 mmol/L (LC 14 and HC 17).

  • ‖‖Significant group × baseline interaction, with significant group effect for baseline HDL-C <1.3 mmol/L (LC 33 and HC 28).