Table 1

Participant characteristics by age

<13 years old13 to <18 years old18 to <26 years old≥26 years old
CGM userCGM nonuserPCGM userCGM nonuserPCGM userCGM nonuserPCGM userCGM nonuserP
N2784,7491794,6761572,6129993,667
Sex: female, n (%)*b143 (51)2,274 (48)0.2592 (51)2,277 (49)0.4892 (59)1,293 (50)0.03566 (57)2,020 (55)0.38
Race/ethnicity, n (%)*b<0.0010.310.180.03
 White non-Hispanic249 (91)3,772 (80)150 (84)3,691 (79)136 (87)2,163 (83)936 (94)3,358 (92)
 Black non-Hispanic3 (1)261 (6)9 (5)259 (6)3 (2)107 (4)17 (2)113 (3)
 Hispanic or Latino17 (6)426 (9)16 (9)492 (11)9 (6)236 (9)19 (2)107 (3)
 Other9 (3)281 (6)4 (2)231 (5)9 (6)106 (4)27 (3)89 (2)
Education level, n (%)*ac<0.001<0.001N/A<0.001
 ≤High school/GED60 (22)2,008 (43)44 (25)2,114 (47)N/AN/A160 (21)1,228 (34)
 Associate's or bachelor's99 (36)1,565 (33)57 (33)1,320 (29)N/AN/A319 (41)1,554 (43)
 Master’s, professional, doctorate113 (42)1,099 (24)72 (42)1,058 (24)N/AN/A298 (38)831 (23)
Household income (USD), n (%)*a<0.001<0.0010.32<0.001
 <35,00013 (6)765 (19)9 (7)648 (19)23 (21)456 (27)54 (6)634 (21)
 35,000 to <75,00059 (27)1,135 (29)18 (15)891 (26)28 (25)458 (27)221 (26)979 (32)
 ≥75,000150 (68)2,042 (52)94 (78)1,835 (54)59 (54)772 (46)583 (68)1,418 (47)
Insurance status, n (%)*b<0.0010.0010.001<0.001
 Private insurance246 (90)2,927 (74)146 (87)3,179 (74)130 (91)1,722 (78)887 (90)2,784 (78)
 Other insurance27 (10)1,020 (26)21 (13)1,063 (25)12 (8)447 (20)97 (10)710 (20)
 No insurance016 (<1)1 (<1)31 (<1)1 (<1)43 (2)2 (<1)88 (2)
Duration of type 1 diabetes (years)a 0.0040.0010.020.009
 Median (25th, 75th percentile)4 (2, 6)3 (1, 5)7 (4, 11)6 (3, 9)11 (7, 14)9.5 (6, 14)25 (16, 35)24 (15, 34)
 n (%)
  <13 (1)164 (3)4 (2)74 (2)1 (<1)10 (<1)1 (<1)10 (<1)
  1 to <10262 (94)4,452 (94)123 (72)3,513 (75)65 (41)1,296 (50)113 (11)540 (15)
  10 to <2013 (5)133 (3)52 (26)1,089 (23)85 (54)1,223 (47)218 (22)854 (23)
  20 to <506 (4)83 (3)624 (62)2,093 (57)
  ≥50 years43 (4)170 (5)
Insulin delivery method, n (%)*b<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
 Pump240 (88)2,740 (58)155 (89)2,558 (55)25 (16)1,383 (54)828 (84)2,073 (57)
 Injections34 (12)1,961 (42)19 (11)2,063 (45)131 (84)1,202 (46)162 (16)1,545 (43)
  • *Two transgenders in cohort; 9 missing race/ethnicity; 1,122 missing education level; 3,870 missing annual household income; 1,037 missing insurance status; 195 were excluded from insulin delivery method, since they were reportedly using both pump and injections.

  • aP value from Wilcoxon rank sum test. Ordinal income and education variables were analyzed using Mantel-Haenszel statistics.

  • bP value from χ2 test

  • cHighest education level of participant or parent (if <18 years old). Not reported for participants 18 to <26 years old, since it was not an accurate representation of socioeconomic status for this age-group.