Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the 97,245 participants of the Nurses’ Health Study in 1988

COPDNo COPD
AsthmaNo asthma*
n1,3422,87993,024
Age (years)58 ± 752 ± 754 ± 7
Race (%)
    White939287
    Non-white355
    Missing438
BMI (kg/m2)24.1 (21.6–27.3)25.5 (22.8–29.2)24.4 (22.1–27.5)
Family history of diabetes (%)242020
Hypertension (%)192016
Hormone replacement therapy (%)
    Premenopausal242929
    Current user of estrogen only9128
    Current user of estrogen and progesterone675
    Missing201720
Activity level (METs/week)12 ± 1814 ± 1716 ± 22
Smoking status (%)
    Never smoker164844
    Past smoker314136
    Current light smoker (<25 cigarettes/day)28814
    Current heavy smoker (≥25 cigarettes/day)2536
    Pack-years50 (37–67)20 (8–35)25 (12–43)
Daily alcohol intake (gm/day)9 ± 146 ± 107 ± 10
Cereal fiber intake (gm/day)4 ± 35 ± 35 ± 3
Trans fat intake (gm/day)3 ± 13 ± 13 ± 1
Glycemic load index10,923 ± 4,18311,129 ± 4,11811,044 ± 4,094
Polyunsaturated-to-saturated fat ratio0.5 ± 0.20.5 ± 0.20.5 ± 0.2
  • Data are means ±SD or median (interquartile range), unless noted otherwise.

  • *

    * Includes 1,371 participants with a component of COPD not reaching diagnostic criteria and 21 subjects with asthma but without date of onset. MET, metabolic equivalent.