Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of nondiabetic and diabetic men and women

Nondiabetic
Diabetic
P-value (adjusted for age and area of residence)
Men vs. women
Diabetic vs. nondiabetic
Interaction for gender × diabetes
MenWomenMenWomenNondiabeticDiabeticMenWomen
Subjects (n)583713429406
Age (years)54.4 ± 5.654.8 ± 5.556.9 ± 5.158.7 ± 4.9
Current smokers (%)30.79.825.47.4<0.001<0.0010.2480.9270.971
BMI (kg/m2)26.0 ± 3.227.0 ± 4.628.1 ± 4.530.5 ± 5.9<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.0010.001
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)138.0 ± 19.6143.77 ± 21.3147.2 ± 20.1158.7 ± 25.2<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.0010.057
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)6.63 ± 1.256.95 ± 1.416.38 ± 1.406.99 ± 1.94<0.001<0.0010.0090.0700.140
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.36 ± 0.361.62 ± 6.951.20 ± 0.351.28 ± 0.38<0.0010.007<0.001<0.001<0.001
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.50 ± 0.781.32 ± 0.612.21 ± 2.102.78 ± 3.47<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.5 ± 0.75.3 ± 0.611.1 ± 3.812.3 ± 3.8<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001<0.001
HbA1 (%)    —9.7 ± 2.310.2 ± 2.20.001
Duration of diabetes (years)    —8.0 ± 4.07.9 ± 3.90.305
  • Data are means ± SD unless otherwise indicated.