Table 4—

Factors independently associated with overall functional disability

Adjusted OR95% CI
Disease category
  No diabetes and no major depression (reference)1.001.00–1.00
  Major depression3.002.62–3.42
  Diabetes and major depression7.154.53–11.28
  <65 years (reference)1.001.00–1.00
  ≥65 years2.832.61–3.08
  Men (reference)1.001.00–1.00
  Non-Hispanic white (reference)1.001.00–1.00
  Non-Hispanic black0.820.74–0.92
  Non-Hispanic other0.650.55–0.78
  ≥High school (reference)1.001.00–1.00
  <High school1.541.39–1.70
Household income
  ≥$20,000 (reference)1.001.00–1.00
Census region
  West (reference)1.001.00–1.00
Disability-associated comorbidity*
  No (reference)1.001.00–1.00
  • *

    * Disability-associated comorbidity is defined as having any one of the following: chronic arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, stroke, or heart failure. Chronic arthritis is defined as having rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gouty arthritis, or other types of arthritis.