Table 4—

Factors independently associated with overall functional disability

Adjusted OR95% CI
Disease category
  No diabetes and no major depression (reference)1.001.00–1.00
  Major depression3.002.62–3.42
  Diabetes2.422.10–2.79
  Diabetes and major depression7.154.53–11.28
Age
  <65 years (reference)1.001.00–1.00
  ≥65 years2.832.61–3.08
Sex
  Men (reference)1.001.00–1.00
  Women1.451.35–1.56
Race/ethnicity
  Non-Hispanic white (reference)1.001.00–1.00
  Hispanic0.520.46–0.60
  Non-Hispanic black0.820.74–0.92
  Non-Hispanic other0.650.55–0.78
Education
  ≥High school (reference)1.001.00–1.00
  <High school1.541.39–1.70
Household income
  ≥$20,000 (reference)1.001.00–1.00
  <$20,0001.541.41–1.67
Census region
  West (reference)1.001.00–1.00
  South1.361.21–1.53
  Midwest1.030.92–1.15
  Northeast1.311.15–1.49
Disability-associated comorbidity*
  No (reference)1.001.00–1.00
  Yes4.944.60–5.31
  • *

    * Disability-associated comorbidity is defined as having any one of the following: chronic arthritis, chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, coronary artery disease, stroke, or heart failure. Chronic arthritis is defined as having rheumatoid arthritis, osteoarthritis, gouty arthritis, or other types of arthritis.