Table 1—

Characteristics of subjects in the Framingham Offspring Cohort across quintile categories of HOMA-IR insulin resistance

HOMA-IRQuintile categories
P value*
<4.834.84–5.715.72–6.796.79–8.64>8.64
Participants (n)568565567568565
Characteristics
  Women (%)7164514641<0.0001
  Age (years)5253545556<0.0001
  BMI (kg/m2)24.225.426.628.431.3<0.0001
  Physical activity score34.634.734.835.234.50.74
  Alcohol use (%)7875767367<0.0001
  Current cigarette smoking (%)21201920160.07
  Estrogen replacement therapy (women only) (%)182118149<0.001
  Normal glucose tolerance (%)9491907750<0.0001
  Impaired fasting glucose/impaired glucose tolerance (%)6892033<0.0001
  Undiagnosed diabetes (%)011317<0.0001
  Fasting serum insulin (μU/ml)1.94.36.810.019.3<0.0001
Insulin resistance phenotype
  Abnormal waist circumference (%)1325315072<0.0001
  Low HDL cholesterol (%)§1924354564<0.0001
  Elevated triglycerides (%)1219294161<0.0001
  Elevated fasting glucose (%)0221138<0.0001
  Abnormal blood pressure (%)#1014182942<0.0001
  Metabolic syndrome ≥3 components (%)27112859<0.0001
  • Data are means unless otherwise indicated. Geometric means are given for levels of fasting insulin.

  • *

    * P values for trend for continuous variables or Mantel-Haenzel χ2 for categorical variables across quintiles of HOMA-IR.

  • Previously undiagnosed diabetes was defined as a fasting plasma glucose concentration ≥126 mg/dl (7.0 mmol/l) or a 2-h postchallenge glucose concentration ≥200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l). Impaired fasting glucose was defined as a fasting plasma glucose concentration of 110–126 mg/dl (6.1–7.0 mmol/l). Impaired glucose tolerance was defined as a 2-h postchallenge glucose concentration of 140–200 mg/dl (11.1 mmol/l). Normal glucose tolerance was defined as a fasting glucose concentration of <110 mg/dl (6.1 mmol/l) and a 2-h postchallange glucose concentration of <140 mg/dl (7.8 mmol/l).

  • Waist circumference >40 inches in men and >35 inches in women.

  • §

    § Serum HDL cholesterol <40 mg/dl or <50 mg/dl in men and women, respectively.

  • Triglyceride level ≥150 mg/dl.

  • #

    # Blood pressure of at least 130/85 mmHg or taking hypertensive medication.

  • Fasting plasma glucose concentration ≥6.1 mmol/l.