Table 1—

Characteristics of 3,599 Japanese male office workers in relation to serum GGT levels

CharacteristicsGGT (units/l)
P for trend*
<1515–2122–3132–52≥53
n663775712695754
Age (years)46.5 ± 6.747.3 ± 6.447.0 ± 6.347.6 ± 6.147.9 ± 5.7<0.001
Family history of diabetes7.79.49.87.510.30.325
BMI (kg/m2)22.2 ± 2.223.1 ± 2.423.7 ± 2.624.2 ± 2.724.3 ± 2.8<0.001
Current drinkers71.081.986.791.293.9<0.001
Current smokers43.746.351.553.456.4<0.001
Regular physical activity at least once a week51.352.152.157.053.30.143
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)122.8 ± 14.8126.2 ± 14.3127.7 ± 14.2130.5 ± 15.1133.8 ± 15.4<0.001
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)73.9 ± 10.676.5 ± 10.678.3 ± 10.480.2 ± 11.182.4 ± 11.1<0.001
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)4.68 ± 0.704.95 ± 0.735.04 ± 0.815.13 ± 0.825.28 ± 0.91<0.001
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.42 ± 0.301.39 ± 0.321.37 ± 0.361.38 ± 0.361.41 ± 0.340.035
Triglycerides (mmol/l)0.86 (0.64–0.19)1.04 (0.78–1.47)1.20 (0.85–1.74)1.35 (1.00–2.04)1.70 (1.14–2.54)<0.001
Fasting plasma glucose (mmol/l)5.03 ± 0.775.13 ± 0.655.20 ± 0.925.27 ± 0.945.38 ± 1.05<0.001
WBC count (109 cells/l)6.12 ± 1.716.36 ± 1.586.59 ± 1.696.68 ± 1.776.82 ± 1.67<0.001
AST (units/l)17 (15–20)19 (17–22)20 (17–24)22 (20–27)27 (23–35)<0.001
ALT (units/l)14 (11–17)17 (14–23)21 (16–28)24 (18–33)31 (24–42)<0.001
Alkaline phosphatase (units/l)161 (142–183)161 (143–186)164 (146–186)164 (144–188)172 (151–197)<0.001
Metabolic syndrome4.49.014.623.228.0<0.001
Type 2 diabetes3.25.87.09.511.3<0.001
  • Data are means ± SD, percent, or median (interquartile range).

  • *

    * Quadratic trend for HDL cholesterol.