Table 2—

Multivariate ORs for the development of type 2 diabetes over the 7-year follow-up, including Si and EIR, and with 32–33 split proinsulin or with intact proinsulin added, without or with adjustment for BMI and glucose tolerance

sOR (95% CI)P
Model 1
 EIR (1 SD)0.73 (0.60–0.90)0.003
Si (1 SD)0.55 (0.43–0.70)0.001
Model 2
 32–33 split proinsulin1.52 (1.18–1.95)0.001
 Specific insulin1.03 (0.81–1.32)0.786
Model 3
 Proinsulin1.27 (1.03–1.61)0.036
 Specific insulin1.15 (0.91–1.47)0.230
Model 4
 32–33 split proinsulin (1 SD)1.49 (1.18–1.88)0.001
 EIR (1 SD)0.71 (0.58–0.87)0.001
Si (1 SD)0.68 (0.53–0.88)0.004
Model 5
 Proinsulin (1 SD)1.30 (1.04–1.63)0.023
 EIR (1 SD)0.72 (0.59–0.89)0.002
Si (1 SD)0.65 (0.50–0.83)0.001
Model 6
 32–33 split proinsulin (1 SD)1.39 (1.08–1.76)0.009
 EIR (1 SD)0.77 (0.62–0.95)0.015
Si (1 SD)0.79 (0.59–1.05)0.109
 BMI (1 SD)1.05 (0.83–1.34)0.677
 IGT vs. NGT2.09 (1.36–3.20)0.01
Model 7
 Proinsulin (1 SD)1.28 (1.02–1.61)0.034
 EIR (1 SD)0.78 (0.63–0.97)0.025
Si (1 SD)0.77 (0.57–1.03)0.074
 BMI (1 SD)1.09 (0.86–1.39)0.448
 IGT vs. NGT2.18 (1.43–3.34)0.001
  • Logistic regression was applied to variables standardized to 1 SD. Overall significance test P < 0.0001 in all models. EIR = early insulin response at an OGTT (Δ0–30 insulin/Δ0–30 glucose). All models were adjusted for age at baseline.n = 47/667.