Table 1

From diabetic coma to HHS

YearsAuthors (reference nos.)Comment
1828von Stosch (8)Initial descriptions of diabetic coma
1857Petters (10)Discovery of acetone in the urine of patients with diabetes
1865Gerhardt (91)Discovery of acetoacetic acid in the urine of patients with diabetes
1874Kussmaul (15)First extensive description of diabetic coma
1878Foster (11)Cases of diabetic coma and acetonemia
1883–1884Stadelmann (18)/Külz (19)/Minkowski (20)Discovery of β-hydroxybutyric acid in patients with diabetes
1884–1886von Frerichs (21)/Dreschfeld (14)Description of a nonketotic diabetic coma
1922Banting et al. (83)Insulin discovery
1909–1923Lépine (92)/Revillet (93)/McCaskey (94)/Bock et al. (95)Case series of diabetic coma without ketonuria
1930–1935Lawrence (84)/Joslin (17)Initial recommendations for the management of diabetic comas
1957Sament and Schwartz (30)/de Graeff and Lips (29)Detailed case reports of diabetic coma without ketones and hyperosmolality
1962Singer et al. (85)Linking osmolality and hyperglycemia
1971Arieff and Carroll (55)/Gerich et al. (54)Case series of HHS; initial criteria
1973Arieff and Kleeman (77)Mechanisms leading to cerebral edema
1976–1977Alberti and Hockaday (60)/Kitabchi et al. (70)Low-dose insulin protocols
2004–2009Kitabchi et al. (4,86,87)Position Statement, American Diabetes Association: management of hyperglycemic crises
2011Zeitler et al. (59)Guidelines for the management of HHS in children