Table 1—

Patient characteristics

Demographic characteristics
Men/women277 (53)/245 (47)
Age (years)60.7 ± 6.8
Race
    Caucasian419 (80)
    African American79 (15)
    Other24 (5)
Diabetes-related and cardiac risk factors
    Diabetes duration (years)8.1 ± 7.1
    Age at diabetes diagnosis (years)52.5 ± 9.0
    HbA1c (%)7.1 ± 1.5
        <7%280 (54)
    Treatment
        Insulin52 (10)
        Insulin plus oral agent67 (12)
        Diet only77 (15)
        Oral agent326 (63)
    Retinopathy*
        Yes70 (14)
        Missing data48 (9)
    Peripheral vascular disease47 (9)
    BMI (kg/m2)31.1 ± 6.3
    Aspirin use229 (44)
ADA consensus guidelines risk factors
    Lipid abnormality or lipid-lowering treatment303 (58)
    Lipid abnormality124 (24)
    Lipid treatment242 (47)
    Blood pressure >140/90 mmHg or hypertension treatment336 (65)
    Blood pressure >140/90 mmHg160 (31)
    Hypertension treatment291 (56)
        ACE use191 (37)
        β-Blocker use55 (11)
        Calcium channel blocker use61 (12)
    Smoking
        Past252 (48)
        Current51 (10)
Family history of CAD§110 (21)
    Albuminuria
        <30 μg/mg creatinine400 (77)
        30–299 μg/mg creatinine95 (18)
        ≥300 μg/mg creatinine17 (3)
        Missing10 (2)
Two or more ADA screening risk factors306 (60)
  • Data are means ± SD or n (%).

  • *

    * Retinopathy (i.e., background, preproliferative, proliferative, macular edema, or history of laser treatment) assessed from ophtalmological exam within the past year.

  • Presence of symptoms of claudication or history of peripheral vascular surgery.

  • Total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dl, LDL ≥160 mg/dl, or HDL cholesterol <35 mg/dl.

  • §

    § Diagnosis of CAD in parents or siblings before age 50 years.