Table 3—

Bivariate comparisons between patients with normal stress tests and those with stress abnormalities

Stress test normalSmall stress perfusion abnormalityModerate-to-large stress perfusion abnormalityST-segment depression
n409503321
Demographics
    Age60 (55–65)61 (56–66)59 (53–67)64 (60–68)
    Sex
        Men211 (52)31 (62)23 (70)*5 (24)
        Women198 (48)19 (38)10 (30)16 (76)
Diabetes related
    Duration (years)6 (3–11)5 (3–10)9 (3–15)11 (4–16)
    Age at diagnosis (years)52 (48–58)55 (49–62)51 (48–54)50 (45–62)
    Insulin use89 (22)14 (28)9 (27)3 (14)
    HbA1c (%)6.8 (6.1–7.8)6.7 (6.1–7.7)6.7 (6.2–7.7)6.9 (6–7.8)
    Retinopathy56 (15)5 (10)3 (9)3 (14)
    Albuminuria
    Microalbuminuria (30–299 μg/mg) creatinine72 (18)8 (16)7 (21)7 (33)
    Macroalbuminuria(≥300 μg/mg) creatinine12 (3)1 (2)2 (6)0 (0)
    Peripheral neuropathy§153 (37)18 (36)17 (52)10 (48)
    Autonomic neuropathy49 (12)4 (18)8 (24)*1 (5)
Cardiac related
    BMI (kg/m2)29.6 (26.0–34.3)32.5 (27.2–36.5)31.5 (27.6–35.5)30 (26–32)
    Waist circumference (in)41 (37–45)42.8 (38.0–47.3)42 (39–45.5)38 (34.4–42.1)
    Never smoked167 (41)20 (40)16 (49)13 (62)
    Past/current smoker242 (59)30 (60)17 (52)8 (38)
    Family history of CAD88 (22)8 (16)8 (24)3 (14)
    Blood pressure >140/90 mmHg or hypertension treatment261 (64)50 (66)23 (70)12 (57)
    Blood pressure >140/90 mmHg118 (29)19 (38)11 (33)8 (38)
    Peripheral vascular disease38 (9)1 (2)4 (12)4 (19)
Autonomic function testing
    E/I heart rate ratio deep breathing
        Anscore system#1.12 (1.07–1.20)1.10 (1.08–1.18)1.09 (1.08–1.14)1.15 (1.11–1.18)
        Holter monitor**1.11 (1.08–1.17)1.10 (1.07–1.21)1.08 (1.04–1.15)1.12 (1.09–1.17)
    Valsalva ratio
        Anscore system††1.53 (1.40–1.69)1.41 (1.34–1.57)1.36 (1.34–1.43)1.70 (1.46–1.95)
        Holter monitor‡‡1.31 (1.20–1.47)1.25 (1.34–1.51)1.17 (1.13–1.36)1.42 (1.19–1.60)
    Standing heart rate ratio
        Anscore system§§1.22 (1.14–1.32)1.22 (1.12–1.32)1.19 (1.11–1.30)1.26 (1.19–1.39)
        Holter monitor‖‖1.20 (1.11–1.32)1.25 (1.12–1.36)1.19 (1.08–1.27)1.25 (1.12–1.34)
Laboratory analyses
    Lipid abnormality or lipid-lowering treatment¶¶238 (58)25 (50)20 (61)14 (67)
    Lipid abnormality§100 (25)7 (14)11 (34)4 (19)
    Total–to–HDL cholesterol ratio4.0 (3.3–5.0)3.7 (3.2–4.8)4.0 (3.5–5.5)3.8 (2.7–4.6)
    High-sensitivity CRP (mg/l)2.7 (1.3–5.7)2.6 (1.4–5.9)4.7 (1.4–7.1)3.3 (1.2–7.1)
    Plasminogen activator inhibitor 1 (ng/ml)27 (16–43)29 (19–43)30 (21–43)33 (22–50)
    Homocysteine (mcmol/l)7.0 (5.7–8.8)6.9 (5.9–8.2)6.9 (5.7–8.5)7.1 (5.6–10.2)
  • Data are median (interquartile range) and n (%).

  • *

    * P = 0.05.

  • P = 0.01.

  • Background diabetic retinopathy, preproliferative and proliferative lesions, macular edema, and history of laser treatment.

  • §

    § Two or more signs or symptoms of peripheral neuropathy: numbness, pain, or tingling in extremities; absent deep tendon reflexes; diminished vibration sensation by tuning fork; or diminished touch sensation with monofilament testing.

  • Two or more autonomic neuropathy symptoms: postprandial bloating, orthostatic dizziness, or erectile dysfunction.

  • Symptoms of claudication or history of peripheral vascular surgery.

  • #

    # n = 150.

  • **

    ** n = 444.

  • ††

    †† n = 123.

  • ‡‡

    ‡‡ n = 268.

  • §§

    §§ n = 182.

  • ‖‖

    ‖‖ n = 182.

  • ¶¶

    ¶¶ Total cholesterol ≥240 mg/dl, LDL ≥160 mg/dl, or HDL <35 mg/dl (ADA screening cut points). E/I, expiration/inspiration.