Table 1—

Demographic, clinical, and laboratory data of the control and diabetic groups

ControlPN/CANPN+/CANPN+/CAN+
n856210522
Age (years)47.5 ± 1.943.0 ± 2.057.9 ± 1.2*54.4 ± 2.9
BMI (kg/m2)25.1 ± 0.427.7 ± 0.6*28.2 ± 0.5*26.7 ± 1.0
Sex (M/F) (%)42/5836/6457/4354/46
HbA1c (%)5.7 ± 0.069.1 ± 0.2*9.6 ± 0.2*9.8 ± 0.3*
Mean blood glucose (mmol/l)10.1 ± 0.3610.7 ± 0.2711.0 ± 0.61
Uric acid (μmol/l)291 ± 11.9315 ± 11.9321 ± 17.8
Type 1/type 2 diabetes (%)50/5024/7636/64
Insulin treatment (%)747391
Diabetes duration (years)7.5 ± 0.912.2 ± 1.018.5 ± 2.0
Cholesterol (mmol/l)5.80 ± 0.145.28 ± 0.165.78 ± 0.115.54 ± 0.22
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.61 ± 0.051.34 ± 0.05*1.27 ± 0.05*1.29 ± 0.12*
LDL cholesterol (mmol/l)3.70 ± 0.133.19 ± 0.13*3.60 ± 0.103.24 ± 0.27
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.27 ± 0.091.85 ± 0.32*1.97 ± 0.10*2.24 ± 0.31*
Creatinine (μmol/l)69.0 ± 1.865.4 ± 1.871.6 ± 2.775.1 ± 9.7
Fibrinogen (μmol/l)8.3 ± 0.39.1 ± 0.49.7 ± 0.7
White blood cells (counts/μl)5,811 ± 1866,448 ± 1726,027 ± 348
Nephropathy (%)183555
Retinopathy (%)193462
Hypertension (%)275955
  • Data are means ± SE, unless noted otherwise.

  • *

    * P < 0.05 vs. control;

  • P < 0.05 vs. PN/CAN;

  • P < 0.05 vs. PN+/CAN.