Table 1—
DescriptionGrade right eyeGrade left eyeOutcome
No diabetic retinopathy0012/12
Minimal nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy1112/12
Mild nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy2212/12
Maculopathy33Refer
    Hemorrhage <1 DD from foveal center3a3aRoutine
    Exudates <1 DD from foveal center3b3bSoon
    Groups of exudates (including circinate and plaque) within the temporal arcades >1 DD from foveal center3c3cSoon
    Reduced VA not corrected by a pinhole likely to be caused by a diabetic macular problem and/or suspected clinically significant macular edema.3d3dSoon
Moderate to severe nonproliferative diabetic retinopathy44Refer
    Multiple cotton wool spots (>5)4a4aSoon
    and/or multiple hemorrhages4a4aSoon
    and/or intraretinal microvascular abnormalities4b4bSoon
    and/or venous irregularities (beading, reduplication, or loops)4b4bSoon
Proliferative diabetic retinopathy55Refer
    New vessels on the disc, new vessels elsewhere, preretinal hemorrhage, and/or fibrous tissueUrgent
Advanced diabetic retinopathy66Refer
    Vitreous hemorrhage, traction/traction detachment, and/or rubeosis iridisImmediate
  • DD, disc diameter; VA, visual acuity.