Table 1—

Change in measures of glucose homeostasis derived from an IVGTT

CharacteristicsWomen
Men
TimeTime × sexTime × race
Black
White
Black
White
PPP
PrePostPrePostPrePostPrePost
n1091092072076464216216
Age (years)32.9 (30.8–35.0)35.1 (33.1–37.0)33.1 (30.2–36.0)36.5 (34.5–38.6)
BMI (kg/m2)27.7 (26.6–28.9)27.6 (26.6–28.7)24.7 (24.1–25.4)24.7 (24.1–25.3)26.6 (25.4–27.8)26.4 (25.3–27.7)26.3 (25.6–26.9)26.1 (25.5–26.7)*NSNS
Fasting glucose (mmol/l)5.0 (4.9–5.1)5.2 (5.0–5.3)4.9 (4.8–4.5)5.0 (4.9–5.0)5.2 (5.1–5.4)5.3 (5.2–5.5)5.2 (5.1–5.2)5.2 (5.1–5.2)*NS*
Fasting insulin (pmol/l)67.7 (59.7–76.7)61.7 (55.5–68.7)54.4 (51.1–57.8)50.4 (47.2–53.9)61.9 (52.7–72.8)57.7 (49.7–66.9)61.5 (57.1–66.3)56.2 (52.2–60.6)*NSNS
Si (10−4 min · mU−1 · ml−1)2.35 (2.05–2.69)2.68 (2.37–3.01)4.08 (3.75–4.42)4.15 (3.83–4.49)2.15 (1.78–2.56)2.60 (2.16–3.11)3.29 (2.99–3.62)3.80 (3.48–4.14)*NS
AIRg (10 min · mU−1 · ml−1)1,250 (1,055–1,480)1,227 (1,032–1,458)491 (450–536)480 (440–523)1,046 (837–1,305)964 (774–1,198)539 (483–601)521 (472–575)NSNS
Di (Si × AIRg)2,723 (2,281–3,247)3,084 (2,578–3,684)1,931 (1,754–2,125)1,920 (1,745–2,111)2,103 (1,658–2,660)2,287 (1,763–2,957)1,688 (1,501–1,898)1,894 (1,696–2,114)*NSNS
Sg (min−1)0.021 (0.018–0.023)0.023 (0.021–0.026)0.017 (0.016–0.018)0.018 (0.017–0.019)0.018 (0.015–0.021)0.020 (0.017–0.023)0.015 (0.014–0.017)0.018 (0.016–0.019)*NSNS
Kg (%/min)1.81 (1.68–1.94)1.92 (1.79–2.06)1.62 (1.55–1.69)1.62 (1.55–1.70)1.53 (1.37–1.7)1.58 (1.41–1.76)1.43 (1.36–1.5)1.49 (1.42–1.57)NSNS
GABF (mmol · l−1 · min−1)64.5 (56.2–73.4)67.8 (58.8–77.4)57.0 (51.9–62.4)49.1 (44.4–54)48.9 (39.2–59.7)45.3 (35.3–56.6)55.5 (50.5–60.7)51.9 (47.1–56.8)NSNS
  • Data are means (95% CI).

  • *

    * P < 0.01;

  • P < 0.05; NS, nonsignificant.

  • All values were logarithmically transformed (log10) before analyses except for GABF, which was square root transformed, and age, which was not transformed. Si, insulin sensitivity; Sg, glucose effectiveness; Di, disposition index; Kg, glucose disappearance index; GABF, glucose area below fasting levels. There was no time × sex × race interaction.