Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of participants of the diet therapy clinic of the TLGS according to diet group and nutrient content and food-group servings of menus, calculated separately by each group in baseline and intervention period

Control diet*Weight- reducing dietDASH dietAll
n403838116
Age (years)41.3 ± 12.1§41.2 ± 12.441.5 ± 12.541.2 ± 12.3
Women (%)70717170
Smokers (%)810109
BMI (kg/m2)29.5 ± 9.929.9 ± 10.129.8 ± 10.329.7 ± 10.0
Physical activity (%)
    Very light60.060.162.061.8
    Light38.039.938.036.2
    Moderate2.0002.0
Education (%)
    Illiterate15141514
    High school diploma73757574
    University graduates12111012
Job status (%)
    Retired17.216.015.516.0
    Housewife27.657.155.156.6
    Employed21.225.026.125.4
    Others4.02.03.32.0
Medications
    Cholesterol lowering (%)5555
    Estrogen replacement therapy (%)5555
    Oral contraception (%)7777
Baseline period
    Baseline nutrient content (per day)
Protein (% of energy)151515
    Total fat (% of energy)313030
    Saturated141313
    Polyunsaturated777
        Monounsaturated999
Cholesterol (mg/dl)302308309
Carbohydrate (% of energy)555455
Fiber (g)101010
Baseline keys score54.351.951.9
Potassium (mg)1,4301,4201,410
Calcium (mg)705710712
Magnesium (mg)180179176
    Baseline food groups (servings/day)#
Fruit2.42.32.3
Vegetables3.13.23.1
Grains
    Total8.08.08.0
    Whole1.11.21.1
Low-fat dairy0.50.50.5
Regular-fat dairy0.50.50.5
Nuts, seeds, and legumes0.10.10.1
Beef and ham1.01.01.0
Poultry and fish0.60.60.6
Fat and oils7.07.07.0
Sweets2.52.52.5
Intervention period
    Intervention nutrient content (per day)
Protein (% of energy)151717
Total fat (% of energy)312928
    Saturated14107
    Polyunsaturated778
    Monounsaturated9910
Cholesterol (mg/dl)319249181
Carbohydrate (% of energy)555758
Fiber (g)102129
Keys score55.041.228.2
Potassium (mg)1,4003,4924,456
Calcium (mg)7007991,202
Magnesium (mg)180349460
    Intervention food groups (servings/day)#
Fruit2.34.05.1
Vegetables3.04.14.4
Grains
    Total8.17.47.9
    Whole13.44.1
Low-fat dairy0.41.52.2
Regular-fat dairy0.50.30.7
Nuts, seeds, and legumes0.10.40.8
Beef and ham1.11.40.8
Poultry and fish0.70.91.0
Fat and oils6.94.53.0
Sweets5.53.52.5
  • *

    * Control diet is a diet similar to what most Tehranians usually eat.

  • Weight-reducing diet is a diet with 500 kcal less than caloric needs, emphasizing healthy food choices.

  • DASH diet is a diet increased in fruit, vegetables, and low-fat dairy products and reduced in saturated fat, total fat, and cholesterol.

  • §

    § X̄ ± SD.

  • Nutrition content was calculated based on Nutritionist III (Version 7.0; N-Squared Computing, Salem, OR).

  • Calculated from individual intakes as estimated from study menus and daily diaries. Keys score is 1.35 × (2S-P) + 1.5√c, where S is percentage of energy from polyunsaturated fat and C is mg dietary cholesterol per 4,200 kJ.

  • #

    # Based on 8.4-MJ (2,000-kcal) menus.