Table 3—

Estimated effect (death rate ratio and 95% CI) of periodontal disease and other factors on deaths from cardiorenal disease

CovariatesDeath rate ratio (95% CI)P value
Model 1*
Adjusted for age, sex, and duration of diabetes
    Periodontal disease (severe versus no or mild and moderate)4.5 (2.0–10.2)<0.01
Model 2
Adjusted for age, sex, and BMI
    Periodontal disease (severe versus no or mild and moderate)3.5 (1.2–10.0)0.02
    Duration of diabetes (per 5 years)1.5 (1.2–1.9)<0.01
    Fasting glucose1.0 (0.9–1.2)0.63
    Current smoking (present versus absent)1.9 (0.8–4.3)0.11
    Total cholesterol2.0 (1.5–2.6)<0.01
    Macroalbuminuria (present versus absent)1.9 (1.1–3.4)0.03
    Hypertension (present versus absent)1.8 (1.1–3.2)0.03
    ECG abnormalities (present versus absent)1.9 (0.9–4.1)0.10
  • *

    * Model 1: adjusted for age, sex, and duration of diabetes (72 events/628 subjects).

  • Model 2: analysis of BMI includes a quadratic term (see statistical analysis section; due to missing values for some covariates, the numbers dropped to 62 events/579 subjects).