Table 1

Prospective cohort studies (2009–2013) reporting incident diabetes in Asian American populations

ReferenceStudy, location, and follow-upSample sizeMean age, yearsBMI, kg/m2Diabetes ascertainment methodDiabetes incidence
Aggregated data
 Ma et al., 2012 (28)Women’s Health Initiative (1993–2009)Asian*: 4,190Asian: 63.0 (7.5)Asian: 24.8 (4.6)Self-report: physician prescribed “pills or insulin shots for diabetes”Cumulative incidence %
Black: 14,618Black: 61.6 (7.1)Black: 31.2 (6.7) Asian: 10.6
Hispanic: 6,484Hispanic: 60.2 (6.8)Hispanic: 29.1 (5.8) Black: 17.0
40 centers throughout the U.S.White: 133,541White: 63.6 (7.2)White: 27.6 (5.8) Hispanic: 14.6
Follow-up: 10.4 yearsIncidence rate (per 1,000 person-years)
 Asian: 1.13
 Black: 1.87
 Hispanic: 1.67
 White: 0.82
Disaggregated data
 Karter et al., 2013 (29)DISTANCE studyNorthern California Mean follow-up: 1 year1,704,363 Kaiser Permanente Northern California members with known ethnicityFilipino: 49.1 (16.2)Mean BMI at baselineBased on medical records: ICD-9: 250 (inpatient or two or more outpatient diagnoses)
Either FPG ≥126 mg/dL; random or postchallenge glucose ≥200 mg/dL
Prescription for insulin or oral antihyperglycemic medications
Age- and sex-adjusted prevalence %
 Filipino: 82,781Chinese: 51.6 (16.8) Filipino: 26.6 (4.7) Filipino: 16.1
 Chinese: 68,831Japanese: 58.7 (17.7) South Asian: 26.4 (4.7) South Asian: 15.9
 Japanese: 16,032South Asian: 43.4 (15.0) SE Asian: 26.4 (5.2) SE Asian: 10.5 Japanese: 10.3 Korean: 9.9 Vietnamese: 9.9 Chinese: 8.2 White: 7.3
 South Asian: 6,768SE Asian: 37.7 (12.2) Japanese: 25.4 (4.9)
 SE Asian: 1,876Korean: 49.6 (15.7) Korean: 24.9 (4.2)
 Korean: 1,130Vietnamese: 39.5 (11.6) Vietnamese: 23.9 (4.1)
 Vietnamese: 1,671White: 53.6 (18.0) Chinese: 24.2 (4.0)
 White: 968,943Latino: 44.8 (16.5) White: 28.3 (6.4)
 Latino: 253,821Black: 48.8 (17.5) Black: 30.9 (7.5) Latino: 14.0
 Black: 135,934  Latino: 29.7 (6.4) Black: 13.7
Incidence rate (per 1,000 person-years)
 Korean: 20.3
 South Asian: 17.2
 Filipino: 14.7
 SE Asian: 11.4
 Japanese: 7.5
 Chinese: 6.5
 Vietnamese: 4.6
 White: 6.3
 Latino: 11.2
 Black: 11.2
 Wander et al., 2013 (36)Japanese-American Community Diabetes Study Seattle, WA421 Japanese Americans, 54% male51.4 years (34.0–75.1)Baseline2-h 75-g OGTTCumulative incidence
 Mean: 24.1 (range 16.6–36.9) 20.4%
After 5 years5-year incidence
 Incident T2D: 24.9 9.3%
 Nondiabetic: 24.010-year incidence
Follow-up: 10 yearsAfter 10 years 17.6%
 Incident T2D: 25.4
 Nondiabetic: 23.8
 Chiu et al., 2011 (31)Multiethnic Cohort Ontario StudySouth Asian: 1,001South Asian: 42 (36–49)Self-reported BMI at baselineLinkage with Ontario diabetes database (from multiple administrative sources)Incidence rate (per 1,000 person-years)
Ontario, CanadaChinese: 866Chinese: 42 (36–50) South Asian: 24.6 (22–27) Baseline BMI 18.5–23
Mean follow-up: 12.8 years (1996–2009)White: 57,210White: 46 (38–57) Chinese: 22.6 (20.0–24.0)  White: 3.1 (2.7–3.6)
Black: 747Black: 42 (36–51) White: 26.1 (23.0–28.0)  South Asian: 11.6 (6.0–17.8)
 Black: 26.1 (23.0–28.0)  Chinese: 3.7 (1.1–6.4)
  Black: 7.3 (1.1–16.9)
 Baseline BMI 23–27.5
  White: 6.9 (6.4–7.6)
  South Asian: 20.2 (13.1–27.8)
  Chinese: 16.8 (8.4–25.2)
  Black: 14.1 (8.6–20.2)
 Baseline BMI ≥27.5
  White: 19.0 (17.9–20.0)
  South Asian: 44.9 (28.1–63.9)
  Chinese: 30.9 (10.9–52.6)
  Black: 28.9 (17.0–42.9)
 Maskarinec et al., 2009 (32)Hawaii Component of the Multiethnic CohortCaucasian: 35,042% in age category% in BMI categoryInsurance data, blood testIncidence rate (per 1,000 person-years)
HawaiiJapanese: 44,513Japanese menJapanese men White: 5.8 (5.0–6.6)
Mean follow-up: 12 yearsHawaiian: 14,346 <55: 29.6% BMI <22: 18.5%Japanese: 12.5 (11.4–13.5)
Other: 9,997 55–64: 27.5% BMI 22–24.9: 37.2%Hawaiian: 15.5 (13.3–17.6)
 ≥65: 42.9% BMI 25–29.9: 37.2%Other: 12.2 (9.9–14.4)
Japanese women BMI ≥30: 7.2%
 <55: 29.9%Japanese women
 55–64: 29.6% BMI <22: 41.5%
 ≥65: 40.5% BMI 22–24.9: 29.7%
White men BMI 25–29.9: 22.6%
 <55: 42.6% BMI ≥30: 6.2%
 55–64: 27.6%White men
 ≥65: 29.8% BMI <22.0: 13.8%
White women BMI 22.0–24.9: 31.6%
 <55: 44.4% BMI 25.0–29.9: 40.7%
 55–64: 26.9% BMI ≥30.0: 13.9%
 ≥65: 28.7%White women
 BMI <22: 33.2%
 BMI 22.0–24.9: 27.4%
 BMI 25.0–29.9: 25.2%
 BMI ≥30.0: 14.1%
  • Data are mean (SD) unless otherwise indicated. FPG, fasting plasma glucose; SE, Southeast; T2D, type 2 diabetes.

  • * Self-reported Chinese, Indo-Chinese, Japanese, Korean, Pacific Islander, and Vietnamese.