Table 1—

Number of deaths and death rates in diabetic Pima Indians by periodontal disease

Underlying cause of death (ICD-9 codes)Periodontal disease
P trend
No or mild (1,161 Pyrs)
Moderate (1,365 Pyrs)
Severe (4,040 Pyrs)
nDRnDRnDR
All natural causes63.72319.615528.4<0.01
    IHD (410.0–414.9)0064.8385.70.04
    Diabetic nephropathy (250.4)0010.5275.3<0.01
    Cardiorenal (IHD + diabetic nephropathy)0075.36511.0<0.01
    Other CVD (390.0–459.9)*10.521.171.40.89
    Other diabetes-related conditions (250.0–250.9)10.80061.00.65
    Infections21.222.7224.40.20
    Malignancy (140.0–208.9)10.633.2214.30.37
    Gastrointestinal diseases (520.0–579.9)10.665.0194.00.37
    Other natural causes0032.5152.50.37
All external causes10.764.3133.40.44
  • *

    * Excluding IHD;

  • excluding diabetic nephropathy;

  • ICD-9 codes for infections: 001.0–139.8; 320.0–326.9; 460.0–466.1; 480.0–487.8; 590.9–599.0; 680.0–686.9; 729.4. DR, death rate per 1,000 person-years (Pyrs).