Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of the study participants according to tertiles of endothelial-dependent FMD of the brachial artery

3rd tertile2nd tertile1st tertile
n280280280
Levels of FMD (%)≥5.64.4–5.5≤4.3
Median of FMD (%)6.25.03.9*
Brachial artery diameter (mm)3.99 ± 0.573.97 ± 0.583.98 ± 0.60
Age (years)53 ± 752 ± 654 ± 5
BMI (kg/m2)26.4 ± 3.026.3 ± 2.826.2 ± 2.9
Waist circumference (%)83 ± 1382 ± 1682 ± 14
Family history of diabetes (%)35.3 (n = 99)35.0 (n = 98)33.9 (n = 95)
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)126 ± 12125 ± 14126 ± 13
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)83 ± 783 ± 782 ± 8
Time from menopause (months)28 ± 1125 ± 1030 ± 11
Exercise frequency
    Never (%)51.8 (n = 145)47.1 (n = 132)48.2 (n = 135)
    1–2 times/week (%)40.0 (n = 95)35.7 (n = 100)36.4 (n = 102)
    ≥3 times/week (%)8.2 (n = 40)17.2 (n = 48)15.4 (n = 43)
Alcohol consumption
    Never (%)36.4 (n = 102)35.7 (n = 100)37.5 (n = 105)
    >1 drink/day (%)8.2 (n = 23)8.9 (n = 25)7.2 (n = 20)
    2–6 drinks/week (%)21.4 (n = 60)25.0 (n = 70)31.4 (n = 88)
    1–5 drinks/month (%)34.0 (n = 95)30.4 (n = 85)23.9 (n = 67)
Biochemical profile
    Fasting total cholesterol (mg/dl)189 ± 19190 ± 17188 ± 19
    Fasting triglycerides (mg/dl)149 ± 16148 ± 19154 ± 16
Plasma glucose (mg/dl)
    Basal88 ± 887 ± 885 ± 9
    2-h121 ± 9119 ± 12121 ± 11
  • Data are means ± 1 SD or %.

  • *

    * P < 0.0001.