Table 1—

Descriptive data for patients with and without metabolic syndrome

Metabolic syndromeNo metabolic syndrome
n9441,471
Men (%)5052
Age (years)38.7 ± 0.4*36.2 ± 0.3
Age at onset (years)14.5 ± 0.3*15.7 ± 0.2
Diabetes duration (years)24.1 ± 0.4*20.5 ± 0.3
BMI (kg/m2)26.6 ± 0.1*24.0 ± 0.1
Waist-to-hip ratio
    Men0.95 ± 0.01*0.89 ± 0.01
    Women0.84 ± 0.01*0.80 ± 0.01
Systolic blood pressure (mmHg)140 ± 1*130 ± 1
Diastolic blood pressure (mmHg)83 ± 1*78 ± 1
Antihypertensive medication (%)61*30
Total cholesterol (mmol/l)5.21 ± 0.03*4.82 ± 0.02
HDL cholesterol (mmol/l)1.10 ± 0.01*1.43 ± 0.01
Triglycerides (mmol/l)1.72 ± 0.03*0.99 ± 0.01
A1C (%)8.8 ± 0.1*8.3 ± 0.1
eGDR (mg · kg−1 · min−1)4.8 ± 0.1*7.0 ± 0.1
Serum creatinine (μmol/l)130 ± 4*94 ± 2
Creatinine clearance (ml/min per 1.73 m2)84 ± 1*93 ± 1
Creatinine clearance <60 ml/min per 1.73 m2 (%)20*7
ESRD (%)12*4
Diabetic nephropathy
    Men (%)40*16
    Women (%)34*11
Coronary heart disease (%)9*3
Myocardial infarction (%)5*2
Stroke (%)32
Amputation (%)6*1
Retinal laser treatment (%)53*26
Current smoking (%)2622
  • Data are means ± SEM or %.

  • *

    * P < 0.001 and

  • P < 0.05 vs. no metabolic syndrome.