Table 2—

Pharmacokinetic summary measures (C-peptide corrected) after inhalation of 1 mg insulin or subcutaneous injection of 3 units regular human insulin in nondiabetic nonsmokers and smokers at baseline, after smoking cessation, and after smoking resumption

AUC-Insulin0–360 (μU · ml−1 · min−1)*Cmax (μU/ml)*tmax (min)†
SCNSm2,32411.690.0 (127.5)
SCSm2,26913.690.0 (97.5)
INH1NSm1,6459.752.5 (55.0)
INH1Sm2,58326.820.0 (21.8)
INH2Sm3,16533.320.0 (22.5)
INH3Sm2,32118.530.0 (37.8)
INH4Sm1,88715.837.5 (41.8)
INH5Sm3,15629.230.0 (30.3)
Mean AUC ratio (90% CI)Mean Cmax ratio (90% CI)tmax median difference (90% CI)
SCSm/SCNSm0.98 (0.82–1.16); P = NS1.17 (0.94–1.45); P = NS−15.0 (−60.0 to 15.0); P = NS
INH1Sm/INH1NSm1.57 (1.15–2.14); P < 0.052.77 (1.99–3.85); P < 0.001−30.0 (−55.0 to −10.0); P < 0.01
INH1NSm/SCNSm0.71 (0.52–0.97); P = NS0.83 (0.64–1.08); P = NS−57.5 (−135.0 to −15.0); P < 0.05
INH1Sm/SCSm1.14 (0.96–1.35); P = NS1.97 (1.60–2.42); P < 0.001−70.0 (−80.0 to −55.0); P < 0.001
INH2Sm/INH1Sm1.22 (1.04–1.45); P < 0.051.24 (1.06–1.46); P < 0.052.5 (−5.0 to 10.0); P = NS
INH3Sm/INH1Sm0.90 (0.74–1.08); P = NS0.69 (0.58–0.82); P < 0.0110.0 (10.0–25.0); P < 0.001
INH4Sm/INH1Sm0.73 (0.60–0.88); P < 0.050.59 (0.50–0.69); P < 0.00117.5 (10.0–30.0); P < 0.01
INH5Sm/INH1Sm1.22 (1.03–1.45); P = NS1.09 (0.91–1.31); P = NS10.0 (0.0–15.0); P < 0.01
INH1NSm/INH4Sm0.87 (0.62–1.22); P = NS0.61 (0.47–0.80); P < 0.0115.0 (−10.0–30.0); P = NS
  • AUC-Insulin0–360 = area under the serum insulin concentration versus time curve between 0 and 360 min. *Geometric mean values; †Median (arithmetic mean) values.