Table 1—

Baseline characteristics of study groups

UrbanRuralχ2P
n1,3771,265
Men/women (n)845/532906/359
Mean age (years)60.6 ± 9.259.4 ± 9.10.01*
Mean duration of diabetes (years)12.9 ± 8.012.5 ± 7.60.2
Mean HbA1c (%)9.4 ± 2.19.6 ± 2.20.02*
PVD210 (15)166 (13)2.30.1
Smokers25 (2)70 (6)25.20.0001*
Foot infection359 (26)427 (34)18.30.0001*
Amputation45 (3)98 (16) (8)24.90.0001*
Customized footwear846 (61)630 (49)35.70.0001*
Barefoot walking156 (11)195 (15)9.20.002*
  • Data are means ± SD and n (%).

  • * Significant. PVD, peripheral vascular disease.