Table 1

Demographic, clinical, and cognitive characteristics of the study sample

VariableFull sample (N = 263)CKD absent* (N = 172)CKD present* (N = 91)P value
Age (years)60.4 (9.6)60.3 (9.5)60.5 (9.8)0.94
Male sex98 (37.3%)61 (34.5%)37 (40.7%)0.26
Education0.33
 Less than a high school diploma27 (10.3%)15 (55.6%)12 (44.4%)
 High school diploma76 (28.9%)48 (63.2%)28 (36.8%)
 Some college or a college diploma115 (43.7%)75 (65.2%)40 (34.8%)
 Graduate education45 (17.1%)34 (77.8%)11 (22.2%)
BMI (kg/m2)34.1 (7.9)34.0 (8.2)34.1 (7.7)0.61
Age of diabetes diagnosis (years)46.0 (11.0)46.2 (11.2)45.5 (10.8)0.51
Duration of diabetes (years)14.3 (8.9)14.1 (9.2)15.0 (8.3)0.29
SBP (mmHg)131.2 (18.6)128.7 (17.0)136.0 (20.5)0.01
DBP (mmHg)75.4 (10.8)73.9 (9.4)78.2 (12.6)0.03
Smoking0.88
 Never117 (44.7%)76 (44.4%)41 (45.1%)
 Past91 (34.7%)61 (35.7%)30 (33.0%)
 Current54 (20.6%)34 (19.9%)20 (22.0%)
Hypertension87 (33.1%)47 (27.9%)40 (43.0%)0.006
Insulin use108 (41.1%)59 (34.0%)49 (53.9%)0.002
Lipid medications93 (54.7%)56 (51.4%)37 (60.6%)0.25
3MSE score (0–100)84.6 (9.0)85.1 (8.8)83.8 (9.3)0.30
DSC score (0–133)48.1 (15.9)50.2 (15.6)44.2 (15.9)0.004
RAVLT delayed recall (0–15)5.4 (3.2)5.4 (3.2)5.4 (3.0)0.64
  • Data are reported as mean (SD) or number (%). DBP, diastolic blood pressure; SBP, systolic blood pressure.

  • * CKD present if eGFR <60 mL/min/1.73 m2 and/or UACR >30 mg/g.

  • P value reflects comparison of CKD present vs. CKD absent.