Table 1

Characteristics of the study participants at baseline (2001–2003)

Participants who developed T2DParticipants who did not develop T2DP*
n133298
Age, years35.45 ± 12.233.36 ± 13.880.1208
Female sex, %67.6763.420.3885
BMI, kg/m236.74 ± 7.9631.11 ± 8.00<0.0001
Current smoker, %33.8336.580.7266
Current drinker, %63.1668.790.5034
Systolic blood pressure, mmHg120.88 ± 15.34118.87 ± 12.960.1868
Diastolic blood pressure, mmHg77.39 ± 11.8075.63 ± 10.460.1222
HDL, mg/dL47.52 ± 14.4152.44 ± 14.630.0016
LDL, mg/dL100.92 ± 29.3296.06 ± 28.570.1062
Total triglyceride, mg/dL167.20 ± 99.12132.16 ± 65.47<0.0001
Total cholesterol, mg/dL180.70 ± 34.16174.75 ± 33.480.0923
eGFR, mL/min/1.73 m2104.56 ± 21.41105.18 ± 24.840.7917
Fasting glucose, mg/dL94.30 ± 7.8189.55 ± 6.41<0.0001
Fasting insulin, μU/mL20.52 ± 13.0814.14 ± 11.470.0001
Insulin resistance (HOMA-IR)4.80 ± 3.073.15 ± 2.60<0.0001
Total caloric intake, kcal/day2,887.59 ± 2,079.252,812.91 ± 2,117.200.7409
Total dietary protein, g/day97.51 ± 82.9894.99 ± 81.770.7768
Total dietary fat, g/day126.39 ± 99.66123.71 ± 98.080.8017
  • Data are mean ± SD unless otherwise indicated.

  • * Adjusting for family relatedness by generalized estimating equation.