Table 2

Multivariate association of baseline fasting plasma metabolites with risk of developing T2D in American Indians by Cox proportional hazards frailty model

Matching metabolitesMetabolite as continuous variable*Metabolite as categorical variable*
Protective metabolites
 PC (22:6/20:4)0.68 (0.52–0.88)0.45 (0.21–0.97)
 HPMF0.58 (0.43–0.79)0.38 (0.18–0.80)
 MEIR0.61 (0.47–0.78)0.44 (0.20–0.96)
 LDYR0.63 (0.47–0.85)0.37 (0.16–0.87)
 X-4900.65 (0.50–0.84)0.46 (0.21–0.97)
 Combined protective effects0.43 (0.31–0.59)0.23 (0.10–0.51)
Risk metabolites
 2HBP1.80 (1.26–2.57)2.80 (1.19–6.60)
 X-11781.89 (1.29–2.77)2.87 (1.08–7.60)
 Combined risk effects2.56 (1.71–3.84)6.89 (2.63–18.08)
  • Data are HR (95% CI).

  • Adjusted for age, sex, site, BMI, eGFR, HDL, triglycerides, fasting glucose, and HOMA-IR.

  • * HR per SD change in log-transformed metabolite level.

  • Tertile 3 vs. tertile 1.