Table 1—

Baseline subject characteristics by ulcer development during follow-up

No incident ulcerIncident ulcerHR (95% CI)P value
n1,069216
Age (years)*62.4 ± 10.862.3 ± 9.21.00 (0.99–1.01)*0.983
Male sex (%)98980.84 (0.31–2.24)0.699
Race (%)
    White7783Referent category
    Black16130.76 (0.51 to 1.12)0.17
    Other740.66 (0.34–1.29)0.23
    Weight (lb)213.2 ± 48.7215.7 ± 45.51.00 (1.00–1.00)0.19
Diabetes duration (years)10.0 ± 9.312.6 ± 10.01.02 (1.01–1.04)<0.001
Diabetes treatment (%)
    Diet117Referent category
    Insulin38602.73 (1.60–4.66)<0.001
    Oral medication51331.29 (0.74–2.25)0.37
A1C (%)9.5 ± 3.011.8 ± 3.41.13 (1.09–1.17)<0.001
Claudication
    None7260Referent category
    <1 block14211.74 (1.23–2.45)0.002
    ≥1 block14191.30 (0.91–1.85)0.15
Monofilament insensitivity (%)33603.10 (2.36–4.07)<0.001
History of foot ulcer (%)20512.94 (2.26–3.84)<0.001
History of amputation (%)3145.21 (3.53–7.69)<0.001
Abnormal foot shape (%)40501.93 (1.07–3.48)0.001
Callus present (%)29400.99 (0.76–1.30)0.95
Hallux limitus (%)36291.10 (0.82–1.48)0.52
Edema (%)29401.45 (1.11–1.91)0.007
Tinea pedis (%)35370.91 (0.68–1.22)0.53
Onychomycosis (%)52671.75 (1.31–2.32)<0.001
Poor vision (%)11182.15 (1.52–3.05)<0.001
Laser photocoagulation (%)14242.12 (1.55–2.90)<0.001
Current smoking (%)24190.88 (0.62–1.23)0.46
  • Data are mean ±SD or % unless otherwise indicated.

  • *

    * HRs are shown for a 1-unit increase in continuous variables.